Arado SD III

Arado SD III

Arado SD III

Arado SD III bio je jednosjedni lovac za šest aviona proizveden zajedno sa sličnim SD II i koji je postao osnova za Arado Ar 64.

Bio je vrlo sličan SD II, ali je imao drugačiju konfiguraciju motora i propelera. SD II je pokretao Gnome-Rhône Jupiter VI sa redukcionim zupčanikom i drvenim propelerom sa tri lopatice. SD III je takođe koristio motor Jupitera, iako sa samo 490 KS u poređenju sa 530 KS SD II. Jupiterov motor SD III bio je verzija s direktnim pogonom (bez reduktora) i pokretao je propeler s dvije oštrice.

SD III je postigao najveću brzinu od 140 km / h pri 13,125 stopa, blago smanjenje pri 146 km / h SD II, ali ne i pad od 10% koji se mogao očekivati ​​od pada snage motora. Pojedinačni prototip SD III izgrađen je i prošao je testiranja 1930. godine, ali nije uspio postići potrebne performanse, pa se prešlo na sličan Arado Ar 64.


Porodica Spreckels, prihvaćajući legendarnu prošlost i napuštajući stare zamjerke

Ponovno okupljanje porodice Spreckels vrijeme je za prisjećanje na zapanjujući uspjeh, a zanemarujući ogorčena rivalstva.

Okupljanje porodice Spreckels ovog vikenda vrijeme je za prisjećanje na zapanjujući uspjeh, a zanemarujući ogorčena rivalstva.

  • Prije jednog stoljeća, braća John D. i Adolph Spreckels posjedovali su veći dio centra San Diega i cijeli Coronado.
  • Njihov otac, Claus Spreckels, stekao je bogatstvo dominirajući trgovinom šećerom na Havajima.
  • Najmoćnija ličnost ovog kraja na prijelazu stoljeća, John D. Spreckels posjedovao je sve, od Hotela del Coronado do Unije San Diega i Evening Tribunea.
  • John D. Spreckels tema je izložbe Povijesnog udruženja Coronado koja se otvara u četvrtak.
  • Stare porodične svađe gotovo su izbacile izložbu i ponovno okupljanje. "Kunem se", rekao je organizator, "to je poput Kardašijana."

Zaboravljena prva porodica San Diega i Coronada, Spreckels: Evo cijele priče:

Svaka porodica ima svoju istoriju.

Porodica Spreckels, koja se ovog vikenda okuplja u gradu, može se pohvaliti epom.

Njihova priča je veliki roman o kojem James Michener nikada nije stigao napisati, "Igra prijestolja" s početka stoljeća koja tek treba biti proizvedena. U velikoj priči glume braća tajkuni John D. i Adolph B. Spreckels, a radnja uključuje vanbračne veze, predoziranje drogom, pucnjavu u jednoj novinskoj kancelariji, značajnu pobjedu u Kentucky Derbyju i bogatstvo vrijedno milijarde koje su izazvale tužbe i svađe.

Neke od ovih rana još su sirove, istaknula je Sandra Bonura, povjesničarka koja je organizirala okupljanje ovog vikenda.

"Čuo sam:" Ako dođe, neću doći - tužio me je ", rekao je Bonura. "Kunem se, to je poput Kardašijana."

Uspjela je privući 45 članova ove šire porodice. Kontigent Rosekransa došao je iz San Francisca, Russelovi iz Nape, Belcheri iz Novog Meksika, Lewises iz Arizone, Pletchers iz Coronada.

Za razliku od Kim, Khloé i društva, svi su se ponašali najbolje.

„Do sada“, rekao je Adolph Rosekrans, 87, unuk Adolpha B. Spreckelsa, „svi se ljubimo sa rođacima. Svi se vole. "

To nije uvek bilo tačno. Od sredine 19. stoljeća, klan Spreckels radio je, svirao i raskidao na dramatičan, glamurozan način. Životi su im se odigrali na havajskim plantažama šećera, na raskošno opremljenoj parnoj jahti, na ranču Napa-i preko San Diega i Coronada, gradova kojima je porodica vladala poput srednjovjekovnih prinčeva.

John D. i Adolph B. Spreckels, hrabri sinovi šećernog barona iz 19. stoljeća Claus Spreckels, nekada su bili vlasnici Coronada. "Svaki kvadratni centimetar", rekla je Bonura. Kao poslovni partneri, razgrabili su većinu centra grada San Diega, instalirali električne tramvaje, podigli brane, otvorili Belmont Park, poboljšali park Balboa, stvorili prvu ogradicu za slonove u zoološkom vrtu. John D. je doslovno udario kući posljednji skok u "Nemogućoj željeznici" na američko-meksičkoj granici.

Ono što nisu posjedovali pokušali su kontrolirati. Nasuprot San Diego Sun-u, John D. je osigurao prijateljsku pokrivenost kupovinom The San Diego Union 1890. Ovaj pro-Spreckelsov glas pojačala bi Evening Tribune, koju je Spreckels kupio 1901. godine.

Dok rođaci gledaju, devetogodišnji Claus Russell iz Nape, praprapraunuk Johna D. Spreckelsa, najmlađeg potomka Spreckelsa koji je prisustvovao okupljanju porodice Spreckels, svira nekoliko nota u paviljonu za orgulje Spreckels u Balboi Park.

(Howard Lipin / San Diego-Union-Tribune)

Fotografija Johna D. Spreckelsa dio je knjige, Spreckels Organ .. Najveće vanjske lule na svijetu! daje se svim potomcima koji su obišli paviljon orgulja Spreckels u Parku Balboa kao dio porodičnog okupljanja.

(Howard Lipin / San Diego-Union-Tribune)

Vickie Stone, kustosica zbirki u Povijesnom udruženju Coronado, drži zdjelu od havajske kaabaše od drva koa koja se koristi kao korpa za otpatke, poklon porodici Spreckels iz kraljevske porodice Havaja, jedan od predmeta koji je dio John D. Spreckels: The Man , Izložba Legacy koja se otvara 1. marta i traje do 31. avgusta u muzeju Povijesnog udruženja Coronado.

(Howard Lipin / San Diego-Union-Tribune)

Porodični film Spreckels iz 1922. dio je izložbe John D. Spreckels: The Man, The Legacy koja se otvara 1. marta i traje do 31. augusta u muzeju Povijesnog udruženja Coronado. Ovo je fotografija iz filma na kojoj se vidi Spreckels, dvije godine prije njegove smrti.

(Howard Lipin / San Diego-Union-Tribune)

Čak i prije nego što se preselio u Coronado 1906., John D. je bio najutjecajnija ličnost u regiji. Ipak, kada su njegovi posmrtni ostaci kremirani 20 godina kasnije, veliki dio njegovog naslijeđa također se pretvorio u pepeo. Prezime još uvijek krasi Pozorište Spreckels u centru grada, Spreckels Orguljski paviljon u Balboa Parku i druge znamenitosti, ali John D. i Adolphovi nasljednici više nisu lokalni moćnici.

Sjećanja na lokalna postignuća Johna D. su, također, izblijedjela.

"Ne znam zašto ga se ne sjećaju više po onome što je uradio", rekla je Bonura.

Pucnjava u redakciji

U stoljeću od kada su Spreckelovi bogataši dostigli vrhunac, mnogo je izgubljeno, uključujući i porodično shvatanje njene prošlosti. Iskustvo Davida Lewisa bilo je tipično. Odrastajući u San Franciscu 1940-ih, znao je malo o pradjedu Johnu D. Spreckelsu.

"Ne, nije bilo puno priča", rekao je 79 -godišnji Lewis, jedan od 45 potomaka na ponovnom okupljanju ovog vikenda.

Kao dječak nije bio svjestan značaja očeve korpe za otpatke. Lewis je kasnije saznao da je ova zdjela havajske koe, dovoljno duboka i široka da u nju stavi lubenica, bila poklon porodici Spreckels iz havajske kraljevske porodice.

Za Lewisa, vikend je bio rijetka prilika da sustigne daleku rodbinu.

Christine Donald, koja živi u Point Lomi na jahti dugačkoj 40 stopa, izrazila je slične nade. Donald, 52, sjeća se kako je večerao u hotelu Del sa svojom bakom, unukom Johna D.

Njeni ciljevi za ponovno okupljanje uključuju „upoznavanje drugih rođaka koje nisam poznavao, dijeljenje priča koje nisam čuo“.

O nekim od tih prediva reći će "John D. Spreckels: Čovjek, naslijeđe", izložba koja se otvara u četvrtak u muzeju Povijesnog udruženja Coronado. Porodica je imala priliku zaviriti prije svečane večere udruženja u subotu navečer.

"On je toliko učinio u San Diegu", rekla je Bonura, koja vodi emisiju koja će trajati do 31. augusta. "Pretvorio je San Diego u moćnu kuću."

Obilazeći izložbu, članovi porodice vidjeli su zdjelu/korpu za otpatke koa, bocu Johna D., slike i fotografije porodičnih vila i jahti. Domaći film iz 1922. prikazuje Johna D. i Adolpha kako pljačkaju na potonjem imanju Napa. Adolph maše iz invalidskih kolica, pateći smrtonosnom dozom sifilisa zaraženom tijekom izvanbračne veze. John D. se pojavljuje u bijeloj haljini za krštenje i dječjoj haubi, puše cigaru i guta džin iz boce.

Bonura je porijeklom iz San Diega, ali je naišla na ovu stranicu istorije San Diega dok je pisala dvije knjige o Havajima s početka stoljeća.

"Ovisno o krugovima u kojima se krećete", rekla je, "ime Spreckels je ili zlobno ili obožavano."

Porodično bogatstvo proizlazi iz pametne, ako ne i nemilosrdne, poslovne prakse Clausa Spreckelsa. Rođen u Njemačkoj 1828, emigrirao je u SAD kao tinejdžer bez para. Do 1860 -ih stekao je bogatstvo u trgovini havajskim šećerom, potkopavajući suparnike i njegujući političke pokrovitelje u havajskoj kraljevskoj porodici i američkom Kongresu.

Kontrolirajući lanac plantaža na otocima, za svoje je radnike iz Mauija stvorio tvrtku Spreckelsville. Kao i njegov sin, John D., vjerovao je u moć transporta - njegova flota parobroda donijela je havajski šećer na Zapadnu obalu, dok su njegove željeznice u Kaliforniji podržavale njegove farme šećerne repe u Centralnoj dolini.

Kao rukovodioci Spreckels Sugar Company, John D. i Adolph bili su spremni učiniti gotovo sve kako bi osigurali porodično bogatstvo. 1884., kada je San Francisco Chronicle optužio porodičnu kompaniju za prijevaru ulagača, Adolph je uletio u redakciju i uperio revolver prema izdavaču, M.H. de Young i otvorio vatru.

U pucnjavi koja je uslijedila, de Young je dva puta ranjen, dok je Adolpha pao metak koji je ispalio službenik Chronicle. Pre nego što je uspeo da izvede treći udarac na de Younga, Adolph se pozabavio urednikom.

De Young je preživio, kao i njegov napadač. Na suđenju se Adolph izjasnio o privremenom ludilu i oslobođen je optužbe.

Potrebna povoljnija pokrivenost, John D. je uradio ono što je učinio u San Diegu - kupio je suparničke novine, San Francisco Call. U čudnom zaokretu sudbine, Call je promijenio vlasnika godinama kasnije, kada ga je kupio M.H. de Young.

Morvich za pobjedu

Kao medijski barun, John D. je mogao poticati projekte kućnih ljubimaca i kontrolirati imidž svog klana u javnosti. "Teško da ste mogli pronaći prljavštinu na porodici u Kaliforniji", rekla je Bonura.

Kad je Claus umro 1908. godine, ostavio je najveći dio svog bogatstva - vrijednog najmanje 15 milijardi dolara u današnjim dolarima - Johnu D. i Adolphu. Međutim, postojala su još dva brata koji su tužili. Izgubili su, kao i desetine drugih koji su se petljali sa Johnom D. na sudu.

"John D. bi vas tužio da ga pogledate postrance", rekla je Bonura.

Dok se John D. preselio u Coronado nakon potresa 1906., Adolph je ostao na području zaljeva, dijeleći svoje vrijeme između San Francisca i svoje farme konja u Napi. Jedno od njegovih stada, Morvich, 1922. postalo je prvokrvno čistokrvno rase u Kaliforniji koje je pobijedilo u derbiju u Kentuckyju.

Adolphova supruga, Alma de Bretteville Spreckels, ostavila je trajniji spomenik u San Franciscu, osnivajući Legiju časti, muzej umjetnosti s pogledom na Zlatna vrata.

U Coronadu, John D. je sagradio vilu-sadašnju gostionicu Glorietta Bay-s bujnim površinama koje su gledale na njegov Hotel Del i sidrište njegove jahte, 226 stopa, Venetia.

"Kažu da je odabrao ovo mjesto kako bi mogao imati jedno oko na svom poslu i jedno oko na svom zadovoljstvu", rekla je Vickie Stone, kustosica zbirki za Povijesno udruženje Coronado.

Dok je Spreckels volio Veneciju, ponekad je krenuo na višemjesečna krstarenja, dao ju je u zakup američkoj mornarici tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata. Nakon što je služila na Mediteranu kao podgonačersko i pratljivo plovilo, jahta je vraćena Spreckelsu-zajedno sa Ček od vlade od 76.000 dolara.

Pronicljiv trgovac i patriota, Spreckels je inzistirao na tome da Washington podmiri troškove vraćanja ovog privremenog ratnog broda u status krstarice za užitak.

Srca, a ne novčanici

7. juna 1926. zastava Venecije spuštena je na pola osoblja. Tog dana, izvijestio je Coronado Eagle & amp Journal, John D. je podlegao "bolesti kralježnice koja je stalno postajala sve akutnija i rezultirala paralizom disanja koja je neizbježno uzrokovala smrt".

Njegovi posmrtni ostaci putovali su preko zaljeva na trajektu Ramona - trajektna linija bila je jedno od preduzeća Johna D. - zatim je kremirana i otpremljena u San Francisco, gdje počivaju s pepelom njegove supruge Lillie Siebein, koja je umrla dvije godine ranije.

Taj je čovjek bio, prema riječima biografa Austina Adamsa, "jedan od rijetkih velikih graditelja imperija u Americi koji je uložio milione da pretvori teško, bankrotirano selo u prelijepi i kosmopolitski grad koji danas predstavlja San Diego."

Ako ovaj opis zvuči pretjerano obožavano, to nije slučajno. Adamsovu knjigu je naručio i odobrio John D. dvije godine prije smrti velikog čovjeka.

Za novu, neovlaštenu biografiju, Bonura je pronašla članove porodice. Imali su priče o Johnu D. i njegovim jednako šarenim potomcima. Vodile su se bitke oko čitavih blokova u centru Honolulua i vila u San Franciscu, postojao je nesretan brak sa glumicom, Kay Williams, koja se udala za Clarka Gablea, a životi su uništeni pićem i drogom.

"John D. Spreckels Jr. poginuo je 1921. godine u tridesetim godinama u saobraćajnoj nesreći", rekla je Bonura. "U tom trenutku već je imao dva braka i bio je playboy."

Više od 50 godina kasnije, slična sudbina zadesila je Adolpha B. "Bunkera" Spreckels III, šampionskog surfera. Šest godina nakon što je naslijedio značajan dio porodičnog bogatstva, predozirao se u dobi od 27 godina.

Danas Spreckelsovi potomci traže zdravije, benigne znakove svoje baštine. Christine Donald, koja je svoju mladost podijelila između Havaja i okruga San Diego, naslijedila je ljubav Johna D. prema moru i Adolphovu predanost konjima.

David Lewis, koji sada živi u Arizoni, razvio je poznu ljubav prema polo-a kasnije je otkrio da Del Mar's San Diego Surf Polo Club i dalje održava godišnji turnir Spreckels Cup.

Oko 30 članova porodice otputovalo je u subotu ujutro u park Balboa na turneju po cijelom svijetu na svijetu najveće orgulje za lulu na otvorenom.

"Privilegija je upoznati porodicu Spreckels sa njenim naslijeđem", rekao je Ross Porter, izvršni direktor Društva orgulja Spreckels. „Počašćeni smo. Dobrodošli!"

Bonura se upravo tome nadala - vikend koji je obnovio porodične veze i stvorio zajednička sjećanja, bez izazivanja svježih zamjeranja ili tužbi.

"Lično se nadam da će ovo okupljanje okupiti srca", rekla je, "a ne novčanike."


Preambula

U preambuli Ustava Južne Dakote stoji:

Mi, ljudi Južne Dakote, zahvalni Svemogućem Bogu na našim građanskim i vjerskim slobodama, kako bismo formirali savršeniju i nezavisnu vladu, uspostavili pravdu, osigurali mir, osigurali zajedničku odbranu, promovirali opću dobrobit i sačuvali sebe. i našem potomstvu blagoslov slobode, zaredite i uspostavite ovaj Ustav za državu Južna Dakota. Ώ]


545SD

Instrumentni mikrofon daje izuzetno ujednačen kardioidni uzorak kako bi se smanjila povratna sprega. Sadrži tihi magnetni prekidač za uključivanje i isključivanje trske sa opcijom zaključavanja i odabirom operacije s dvostrukom impedancijom.


Arado SD III - Historija

Raketa Delta Flight uklonjena je iz silosa. ROBERT LYON

Istorija Minuteman raketnih lokacija

Raketni sistem ICBM Minuteman

Sovjetski Savez je 4. oktobra 1957. godine uspješno lansirao u orbitu prvi vještački satelit na svijetu, Sputnjik. Radio operateri Ham na istoku Sjedinjenih Država okrenuli su svoje brojčanike na niže frekvencijske opsege i zabrinuto slušali kako Sputnik od 184 kilograma emituje mehanički "... bip ... bip ... bip ..." dok prolazite iznad glave. Ostali radio operateri brzo su snimili emitovanje i u roku od nekoliko sati Amerikanci u svojim dnevnim sobama čuli su Sputnjikov prenos putem radio i televizijskih bljeskova. Čini se da je poruka potvrdila najveće američke strahove: Sovjeti su tehnološki nadmašili Sjedinjene Države i stekli nadmoć u svemiru. Sovjetska naučna zajednica gubila je malo vremena hvaleći se svojim očiglednim pobjedom. Odmah nakon lansiranja, jedan moskovski naučnik komentirao je: "Amerikanci dizajniraju bolje automobilske repne peraje, ali mi dizajniramo najbolje interkontinentalne balističke rakete i zemaljske satelite." U Sjedinjenim Državama jedan je naslov proglasio: "SAD moraju stići crvene ili mi smo Smrt. "

Istina, značaj uspješnog lansiranja nije bio toliko Sputnjik, već ogromna sovjetska raketa koja je izbacila satelit u svemir. Pomoću Sputnjika, koji na ruskom znači "suputnik", Sovjeti su pokazali sposobnost svog lansera SS-6 da pokrene raketu prema cilju udaljenom hiljade milja. Četiri godine ranije, Sovjeti su eksplodirali "Hbombom." Sada je zastrašujuća mogućnost da sovjetski projektil isporuči nuklearnu bombu američkom gradu za manje od sat vremena oživjela ono što su neki nazvali "atmosferom Pearl Harbor" širom Sjedinjenih Država. Na nagovor svojih vojnih savjetnika i pod ogromnim pritiskom javnosti, predsjednik Dwight D. Eisenhower nevoljko je ubrzao američki ICBM program.

Šok Sputnjika naglo je preokrenuo ono što je ministar vazdušnih snaga Donald Quarles okarakterisao kao američki "pristup siromaha" programu ICBM. U roku od šest mjeseci nakon Sputnjika, budžet Nation -a za svemirska istraživanja i razvoj porastao je sa prosječnih pola milijarde dolara godišnje na više od 10,5 milijardi dolara. Veliki dio novca otišao je za razvoj projektila Minuteman. Godine 1958. Kongres je povećao izdvajanje za Minuteman sa 50 USD na 140 miliona USD. Naredne godine Kongres je dodao dvije milijarde dolara u budžet Minutemana, koji će se raspodijeliti na sljedećih pet godina.

Potpredsjednik Richard M. Nixon, predsjednik Dwight D. Eisenhower i državni sekretar John Foster Dulles (slijeva nadesno) u hotelu Brown Palace, Denver, Kolorado, kolovoz 1952. ODJEL ZA ZAPADNU POVIJEST, JAVNA BIBLIOTEKA DENVER.

Sputnjik je potaknuo razvoj i postavljanje projektila Minuteman. No, porijeklo raketnog programa Minuteman duboko je ukorijenjeno u godinama neposredno nakon Drugog svjetskog rata —, kada su se dvije svjetske velesile počele uključivati ​​u spiralnu trku u naoružanju Hladnog rata.

Dana 7. januara 1954. predsjednik Eisenhower je predao naciji svoje prvo obraćanje o stanju u Uniji. Nakon što je izjavio da je "američka sloboda ugrožena sve dok postoji komunistička zavjera u sadašnjem opsegu, moći i neprijateljstvu", predsjednik je iznio svoje planove za odbranu nacije od te prijetnje. "Nećemo biti agresori", rekao je, "ali mi ... imamo i zadržat ćemo ogromnu sposobnost uzvraćanja udara." Eisenhower -ovi komentari odražavaju doktrinarnu osnovu većeg dijela američkog strateškog planiranja u doba Hladnog rata.

Pogled predsjednika Eisenhowera na Sovjetski Savez bio je sličan onom koji je skoro osam godina ranije iznio George Kennan, diplomata američke ambasade u Moskvi. Gledajući kako se Sovjeti okružuju "tampon zonom" koja je uključivala veći dio istočne Evrope nakon Drugog svjetskog rata, Kennan je tvrdio da su ti potezi rezultat fanatičnog sovjetskog "ekspanzionizma" koji je na kraju bio usmjeren na ometanje američkog društva, uništavajući američki način života i rušenja međunarodnog autoriteta Amerike. Jedini način za rješavanje ove prijetnje, sugerirao je Kennan, bio je da Sjedinjene Države usvoje politiku "strpljivog, ali čvrstog i opreznog suzbijanja ruskih ekspanzivnih tendencija".

Iako je teoretski dobro, pokazalo se da je zadržavanje gotovo nemoguće primijeniti u praksi. Kako bi zaista obuzdali sveprisutnu sovjetsku prijetnju, primijetio je 1954. godine jedan visoki američki dužnosnik, nacija bi se trebala pripremiti za borbu "na Arktiku i u tropima u Aziji, na bliskom istoku i u Europi morem, kopnom, i zračnim putem. "No, iako je Sovjetski Savez uložio ogromne napore da obnovi svoju vojsku i napuni konvencionalno oružje nakon Drugog svjetskog rata, Amerika se vrtoglavo demobilizirala. Iskorištavajući svoju poziciju jedinog posjednika atomske bombe, Sjedinjene Države su slijedile ono što su neki posmatrači nazvali odbrambenom politikom "podloga", koristeći nuklearno oružje kao zamjenu za pješake.

Fiskalno konzervativan, predsjednik Eisenhower je također želio zadržati američki atomski arsenal na minimalnom iznosu potrebnom za odvraćanje Moskve. Predsjednik i njegov glavni ekonomski savjetnik, Arthur H. Burns, vjerovali su da savezna vlada mora smanjiti potrošnju, smanjiti poreze i uravnotežiti budžet kako bi postigla stabilan ekonomski rast. Uprkos protestima Zajedničkog načelnika štaba, Eisenhower je neprestano vršio pritisak na velika smanjenja vojne potrošnje, koja je trošila gotovo 70 % državnog budžeta u vrijeme kada je preuzeo dužnost 1953. godine.

Američki ICBM program

Pomoćnik sekretara zračnih snaga za istraživanje i razvoj Trevor Gardner (lijevo) i general -major Bernard A. Schriever (desno) bili su ključni igrači u razvoju interkontinentalnih balističkih projektila, uključujući i Minuteman. ZRAČNE SNAGE SAD -a, PODJELA ISTORIJE.

Američki vojni planeri počeli su razvijati balističke rakete odmah nakon Drugog svjetskog rata. No, krajem 1940 -ih, američki raketni program počeo je propadati, uglavnom zbog toga što se nuklearna superiornost nacije činila sigurnom. 1949., kada je Sovjetski Savez razvio svoju atomsku bombu, Amerika je odgovorila još moćnijim oružjem - termonuklearnim uređajem koji je upotrijebio mali atomski okidač za pokretanje fuzijske reakcije u izotopovima vodika. Uspješno testirana 1952. godine, činilo se da H-bomba garantuje nuklearnu superiornost Amerike. No, u kolovozu 1953., Sovjeti su eksplodirali vlastitom H-bombom, a mnogi američki vojni stručnjaci također su vjerovali da bi Sovjeti mogli isporučiti svoje novo oružje putem ICBM-a. Po prvi put, činilo se da su Sovjeti spremni preuzeti vodstvo u trci u naoružanju.

Nakon uspješnog sovjetskog testiranja H-bombe, dvije nezavisne američke organizacije preispitale su strateški značaj ICBM-a za nacionalnu sigurnost. Kao što je dr. Bruno Augenstein iz korporacije RAND primijetio, "ako bi Sovjetski Savez pobijedio Sjedinjene Države u utrci za ICBM, posljedice bi bile katastrofalne." Odbor Vazdušnih snaga na čelu sa dr Johnom von Neumannom, profesorom matematike na Univerzitetu Princeton, takođe je ocijenio trku u naoružanju. Kodnog naziva "Odbor za čajnike", von Neumannova grupa istraživala je "utjecaj termonuklearne [bombe] na razvoj strateških projektila i mogućnost da bi Sovjetski Savez mogao biti nešto ispred Sjedinjenih Država." U veljači 1954., RAND i Odbor za čajnike objavili su svoje izvještaje, oba su došla do istog zaključka: nedavni napredak termonuklearne tehnologije učinio je ICBM praktičnom. Nadalje, ICBM bi se "mogla razviti i rasporediti dovoljno rano da se suprotstavi preostaloj sovjetskoj prijetnji ako se odobre izuzetni talenti, odgovarajuća sredstva i nove tehnike upravljanja koje odgovaraju hitnosti situacije".

Do maja 1954. godine, vazduhoplovstvo je izradilo plan razvoja novog oružja. U lipnju je zamjenik načelnika generalštaba, general Thomas D. White, naredio Zapovjedništvu zračnih istraživanja i razvoja "da nastavi s razvojem ICBM najvećom mogućom brzinom, ograničenom samo napretkom tehnologije u različitim područjima." U srpnju , zračne snage su osnovale posebnu projektnu kancelariju za upravljanje programom. Zasnovana na Zapadnoj obali, nova agencija je posljedično nazvana Zapadna razvojna divizija. Bernard A. Schriever, 43-godišnji brigadni general, bio je na čelu Zapadnog razvojnog odjeljenja. Zračne snage su očekivale da će novopromaknuti mladi general u roku od šest godina predati potpuno operativan sistem naoružanja ICBM u ruke Strateške vazduhoplovne komande. Vazduhoplovstvo je smatralo da je misija Zapadnog razvojnog odeljenja toliko važna za nacionalnu bezbednost da su čak i njeni inicijali, WDD, bili poverljivi.

Dana 5. avgusta 1954. godine, general Schriever i mala grupa vojnih oficira preselili su se u napuštenu parohijsku školu u predgrađu Los Angelesa Inglewood kako bi započeli svoj rad. Kako bi izbjegli izazivanje radoznalosti mještana u blizini, policajci su nosili civilnu odjeću. Novinar Roy Neal, koji je zabilježio razvoj raketnog sistema Minuteman, opisao je ono što su otkrili:

Nijedan znak nije identifikovao bijelu školsku zgradu kao Zapadnu razvojnu diviziju.

. . . Prozori su bili zaleđeni i bili su jako začepljeni rešetkama. Sva vanjska vrata, osim jednog, bila su zaključana. Jedini ulaz bio je preko parkirališnog ograda ograđenog lancem. Na vratima je bio čuvar. Sećaju se neki starinci. . . komentar školskog dječaka koji je krstario pored školske zgrade.

Gledajući matirano staklo i prozore sa čeličnim rešetkama, rekao je jednom prijatelju: "Drago mi je što ovdje ne idem u školu."

U ovom neupadljivom, ali pažljivo osiguranom okruženju, odabrano osoblje Zapadne razvojne divizije započelo je napore za izgradnju interkontinentalne balističke rakete.

1945
Bombardovanje Hirošime i Nagasakija

1946
Čerčilov govor o gvozdenoj zavesi

1948
Komunistički udar u Čehoslovačkoj/Berlinskoj blokadi počinje

1949
Uspostavljen NATO/SSSR eksplodirao atomsku bombu/komunističko preuzimanje Kine

1950
Počinje kinesko-sovjetski pakt/korejski rat

1954
Komunistička partija zabranjena u SAD -u

1955
Varšavski pakt/Prva američka vježba civilne zaštite

1956
Mađarski ustanak/Hruščov govori SAD -u: Sahranićemo vas

1958
Eisenhower odobrava Minuteman Missile Program

1960
Špijunski avion U-2 oborio SSSR

1961
Zaljev svinja/izgrađen Berlinski zid/Eisenhower upozorava na vojno-industrijski kompleks/Prvi uspješan testni let Minuteman

1962
Kubanska raketna kriza/ Minuteman I je u pripravnosti

1963
Vruća linija povezuje SAD i SSSR/Ugovor o zabrani testiranja

1964
Kina je aktivirala atomsku bombu

1966
Minuteman II je u pripravnosti

1968
Sovjetska invazija na Čehoslovačku

1970
Minuteman III je u pripravnosti

1973
Rat Yom Kippur: SAD su u svjetskoj uzbuni

1983
Reagan predlaže Star Wars Stratešku odbrambenu inicijativu (SDI)

1989
Istočnoeuropski narodi raskinuli s Moskvom/Berlinski zid pada

1991
Bush i Gorbačov potpisuju sporazum START/ Minuteman II sistem se počinje deaktivirati

1993
66. raketna eskadrila, uključujući let Delta, deaktivirana

ICBM prve generacije: Atlas i Titan

Njemačke rakete V-2, koje je Adolph Hitler pozdravio kao Vergeltungswaffe (osvetoljubivo oružje), korištene su protiv saveznika tokom posljednjih godina Drugog svjetskog rata. DEUTSCHE MUZEJ, MINHEN, NJEMAČKA.

Osoblje Zapadne razvojne divizije započelo je svoj posao oživljavanjem raketnog projekta koji je nastao ubrzo nakon Drugog svjetskog rata. 1946. godine Vazdušne snage su sklopile ugovor sa korporacijom Convair za izradu balističke rakete dugog dometa pod nazivom MX-774. Kao i mnogi poslijeratni projekti, MX-774 je izgubio većinu državnih sredstava nakon samo godinu dana. No, umjesto da odustane od projekta, Convair Corporation nastavila je raditi na svom, stalno napredujući u stanju raketne tehnologije. 1951. godine Vazdušne snage priznale su ove napore angažujući kompaniju da razvije planove za naprednije rakete, nazvane Atlas.

Atlas je u suštini bio visoko razvijena verzija njemačke rakete V-2, koju je Njemačka koristila protiv saveznika tokom opadajućih godina Drugog svjetskog rata. Kao i V-2, Atlas su pokretali raketni motori koji su sagorijevali mješavinu tekućeg goriva i oksidanta. No, dok je V-2 imao efikasan domet od samo nekoliko stotina milja, Atlas je morao isporučiti svoj teret do cilja udaljenog više od 5000 milja. Korporacija Convair je mogla ispuniti ovaj zahtjev dizajnirajući Atlas kao ogromnu verziju V-2. Umjesto toga, Convairovi inženjeri tražili su sofisticiranije rješenje. Shvativši da bi se domet projektila mogao povećati smanjenjem njegove težine, Convair je opremio Atlas inovativnim, ultra lakim okvirom. Convair je raketu sastavio od prstenova od nehrđajućeg čelika tankog papira, složenih zajedno poput cijevi za zavarivanje i zavarenih po šavovima u obliku cilindara. Boce su tada napumpane dušikovim plinom kako bi projektil dobio strukturni integritet.

Do 1954. godine Atlas je bio najnaprednija balistička raketa nacije. Bez obzira na to, projektil je bio godinama udaljen od proizvodnje. Nijedan prototip nije testiran letenjem, a neki skeptici su se plašili da će se, kad su prvi put pokrenuti moćni Atlasovi motori, tankoputi okvir rakete zakopčati u sebe, ostavljajući nade Amerike u ICBM na lansirnoj rampi poput ogromne lopte limene folije.

General Schriever i njegovo osoblje bili su svjesni ove zabrinutosti. Dakle, dok su nastavljali s programom Atlas, tražili su i rezervnu kopiju. U listopadu 1955., zračne snage su sklopile ugovor s kompanijom Glenn L. Martin za proizvodnju nove ICBM pod nazivom Titan. Kao i Atlas, i Titan je koristio tekuća goriva, ali njegov napredni dvostupanjski dizajn omogućio je konvencionalnu i pouzdaniju letjelicu.

Raketa Atlas čeka probno lansiranje sa rta Canaveral na Badnje veče, 1958. Umetak: Probno lansiranje rakete Atlas D. Razvoj rakete Minuteman na čvrsto gorivo ubrzao je rano povlačenje prve generacije ICBM-a na tekuće gorivo, kao što su Atlas D i Atlas E, koje su zračne snage deaktivirale do 1965. US AIR FORCE, umetnuta fotografija CONVAIR (ASTRONAUTICS DIVISION ), GENERAL DYNAMICS CORPORATION.

Ipak, američki raketni program ometen je problemima u finansiranju. Godine 1956., ministar zračnih snaga Donald Quarles odbacio je operativni budžet za program ICBM -a i predložio eliminaciju Atlasa ili Titana, koje je smatrao suvišnim. Iste godine, Vazduhoplovstvo je izgubilo svog najefikasnijeg zagovornika projektila kada je pomoćnik sekretara Trevor Gardner, "Car raketa", najavio povlačenje, navodeći kao razlog kontinuirano smanjenje budžeta za istraživanje i razvoj raketa. Gardnerova odlazak u penziju nije ometao, Quarlesova kampanja štednje se nastavila do 1957. godine kada je program balističkih projektila smanjen za 200 miliona dolara. U srpnju je Eisenhowerova administracija pokrenula još mjere za uštedu troškova, uključujući smanjenje isporuka projektila, smanjenje prekovremenih sati i odgađanje plaćanja izvođačima radova.

Snaga u brojevima: projektilni jaz

Titan I testno lansiranje, Vandenberg Air Force Base, 4. maja 1962. Raketa Titan je imala veći domet i veće korisno opterećenje od Atlasa. Ipak, Titan je jednako kratko trajao. Sve rakete Titan deaktivirane su do juna 1965. US AIR FORCE

Ova štedljiva ekonomska klima dramatično se promijenila nakon Sputnjika. U oktobru 1957., kada je Sovjetski Savez najavio da je koristio ICBM na tekuće gorivo za lansiranje Sputnjika u orbitu, američki naučnici i političari su se bojali značajnog "raketnog jaza". U roku od nekoliko mjeseci, novinari i obavještajni analitičari počeli su tvrditi da bi sovjetske raketne snage do 1960. mogle nadmašiti američki arsenal čak 16 prema jedan. Rastući osjećaj nesigurnosti Amerike nije izgubljen na sovjetskim dužnosnicima, koji su radosno najavili da će njihove tvornice nestati projektili "poput kobasica". Suočena sa oštrim kritikama zbog dopuštanja Sjedinjenim Državama da zaostanu u trci u naoružanju, Eisenhowerova administracija uložila je više novca u svoje raketne programe i povećala godišnji budžet Nation-a za svemirska istraživanja i razvoj u više od dvadeset puta u roku od šest mjeseci nakon Sputnjika. Administracija je također naglasila razvoj projektila Atlas i Titan. One government spokesperson noted that America's missile program was being carefully designed, first to "attain perfection," and then to "develop the ability to produce in volume once that perfection is achieved. "

But America's first-generation ICBMs were neither perfect nor mass-producible. A few weeks after Sputnik, the Wall Street Journal observed that the weaknesses of America's ICBMs "are so profound that . . . generals are sure [the missiles] will be discarded altogether after the first half-dozen years." Atlas and Titan were extraordinarily complex, handcrafted machines, containing as many as 300,000 parts, each of which had to be maintained in perfect operating condition. The liquid propellants that powered the missiles' engines were volatile and corrosive, and could not be placed in the fuel tanks until immediately before launch. In addition, the missile crews needed as much as two hours to fuel the missiles. Consequently, instead of being "stable weapons in a state of permanent readiness," these ICBMs required "the desperate and constant attention accorded a man receiving artificial respiration." The missiles were not a "push button affair but will require a highly-trained crew . . . several times as large as the largest bombing crew. " Many of these problems could be solved, the Wall Street Journal suggested, by developing a simplified "second generation" of missiles powered by solid-fuel rocket engines.

"A lot of work had been done on solids prior to the initiation of the ICBM program in 1954," recalled General Schriever in a 1973 interview, "but there were a number of things that ruled against using solids at that time." Solid propellants in the mid-1950s could not provide enough power to hurl a thermonuclear warhead across an ocean. Also, solids were difficult to manufacture. They were hard to ignite, and there was no way to control their combustion or direct their thrust after ignition. Given these constraints, the Air Force believed that liquid-fueled missiles were "the only immediate way to go ahead. " But the Air Force did not entirely abandon the concept of a solid-fuel missile. In 1956, Schriever reluctantly approved a low-level research program "aimed toward the evolution of a high-thrust . . . solid-fuel rocket." Schriever selected Colonel Edward Hall, Chief of Propulsion Development for the Western Development Division, to head the program. According to historian Robert Perry, Hall was a "near-fanatic" about the potential of solid-fuel missiles.

Colonel Edward Hall spearheaded the US Air Force effort to develop a solid fueled ICBM. COURTESY EDWARD HALL.

Colonel Edward Hall and his staff of engineers diligently researched their solid-fuel missile program. Within two years, Hall's group had solved most of the problems associated with solid-fuel rocket engines. In August 1957, the Air Force asked Hall to develop a medium-range, solid-fuel missile to be the land-based counterpart to the Navy's submarine-launched, solid-fuel Polaris. Within two weeks, Hall drew up specifications for a remarkable new missile whose range could be varied by simply assembling its three interchangeable propulsion stages in different combinations.

The new missile, dubbed "Weapon System Q," was "the first strategic weapon capable of true mass production," wrote Duke University historian George Reed. "To Hall, the new missile was the perfect weapon for a defense policy characterized by minimum expenditure and massive retaliation and he urged that this be its chief selling point." Sputnik made it easy for Colonel Hall to make the sale. A few days after the Sputnik launch, Hall went to the Pentagon with General Schriever to build support for the new missile. As they ascended the ranks of the military hierarchy, Hall refined his plans. By the end of 1957, he determined that "the ICBM version of Weapon System Q would be a three-stage, solid-fuel missile approximately 65 feet long, weighing approximately 65,000 pounds, and developing approximately 100,000-120,000 pounds of thrust at launch. " The missile would be stored vertically in underground silos and "would accelerate so quickly that it could fly through its exhaust flames and not be significantly damaged."

In February 1958, Hall and Schriever presented Weapon System Q to the Secretaries of the Air Force and Defense. "We got approval . . within 48 hours," Schriever recalled. The officers immediately renamed the project. On February 28, 1958, the New York Times reported that the Air Force had been authorized "to produce an advanced type of ballistic missile . . . called Minute Man."

By the end of March 1958, at least seven of the Nation's foremost aircraft manufacturers, including the Boeing Airplane Company, were competing to build the new missile. Although Seattle-based Boeing had built many of the Nation's largest strategic bombers, the company had virtually no experience with missiles. Still, Boeing mounted an all-out effort to win the Minuteman contract, assigning more than 100 employees to work on the project. When the Air Force selection board met to examine the proposals, one top official recalled that "there was no question . . . that Boeing was the right company for the job." In October 1958, the US government contracted with Boeing to assemble and test the new missile.

During the next few months, the rest of the Minuteman missile team came into place. The Thiokol Chemical Company of Brigham City, Utah, the Aerojet General Corporation of Sacramento, California, and the Hercules Powder Company of Magna, Utah, all won contracts to work on the missile's propulsion stages. Minuteman's guidance and control systems went to the Autonetics Division of North American Aviation in Downey, California. The AVCO Corporation of Boston contracted to build the missile's thermonuclear warhead.

Much of the development work for Minuteman took place in northern Utah. Thiokol and Hercules already operated plants in the area and, within a few months, Boeing moved into a new assembly plant that occupied 790 acres at Hill Air Force Base near Ogden. By the beginning of 1960, Boeing's Minuteman work force had grown to nearly 12,000, as the company started to assemble the missiles. Time magazine reported that the desert north of Salt Lake was "boiling" with activity:

Strange lights glare in the night, making the mountains shine, and a grumbling roar rolls across the desert. By day enormous clouds of steam-white smoke billow up . . . and drift over hills and valleys. Monstrous vehicles with curious burdens lumber along the roads.

All these strange goings-on mark the development of the Minuteman, the solid fuel missile that its proponents confidently expect will ultimately replace the liquid fuel Atlas as the US. 's standard ICBM.

Minuteman I test launch. Inset: A Minuteman ICBM, ready for testing at the Air Force Missile Test Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. US AIR FORCE.

According to journalist Roy Neal, the ICBM program created a new national industry: "Tens of thousands of industrial and Air Force managers, engineers, and workers [had] to be trained. New machine tools and test facilities [had to] come into being. . . . " These efforts changed "the face of America, the make-up of the Armed Forces and the industries that support them. "

At the end of 1960, the Air Force took the first Minuteman missile to Cape Canaveral, Florida, for flight testing. The compact new missile was only six feet in diameter and 53 feet high — about half the size of a Titan. Minuteman's three cylindrical, steel-cased propulsion stages were stacked one atop the other, with each stage slightly smaller in diameter than the one beneath it. Each stage was filled with a rubbery mixture of fuel and oxidizer, molded around a hollow, star-shaped core. The Minuteman's guidance system occupied a small compartment above the third stage. The "reentry vehicle" at the tip was identical to the nose-cone that would eventually contain a thermonuclear warhead.

Following two aborted launch attempts, the Air Force successfully fired the first Minuteman missile at 11:00 a. m. on February 1, 1961. Even the most experienced missile watchers found it to be "a dazzling spectacle." When the missile's first-stage engine ignited, there was a loud bang. Then the missile began to rise on a column of flame and smoke. Unlike the Atlas or Titan missile, which one observer said left the ground "like a fat man getting out of an easy chair," the Minuteman missile "shot up like a skyrocket." The missile performed flawlessly. The three propulsion stages completed their burns on schedule, then detached themselves and plummeted back to earth, while the unarmed warhead hurled on toward its assigned destination. Twenty-five minutes after lift-off, the reentry vehicle splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean squarely on target — 4,600 miles away.

From his office in Washington D. C. , Air Force Chief of Staff General Thomas D. White described the launch as "one of the most significant steps this Nation has ever taken toward gaining intercontinental missile supremacy." An engineer who witnessed the event put it another way: "Brother," he said, "there goes the missile gap."

The "Underground" Air Force

By the time the flight test took place, the Air Force was already planning for Minuteman missile deployment. According to historian Jacob Neufeld, the Air Force conceptually developed its "ideal" ICBM base in 1955, during the early days of the Atlas program:

The missile would be sited inside fixed, underground facilities it was to have a quick launch reaction it was to be stored in a launching position the launch site would require minimal support and the launch units were to be self-supporting for two weeks.

Turning these ideas into reality, however, proved difficult. During the height of the "missile gap" hysteria, the Air Force hastily activated the Nation's first Atlas missiles at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Here, the Air Force stored the missiles horizontally in "coffins" — concrete-walled, above-ground enclosures. Before the missiles could be fired, servicemen had to raise each missile vertically on a launch pad and add fuel. The later Titan and Atlas F series missiles were stored upright in underground silos capped with massive "clamshell" doors. But Air Force engineers were worried that vibrations from the rocket engines might shake the missiles apart before launch. As a result, the Air Force equipped each silo with an elevator that raised the missile to the surface for firing. Although the missiles were stored with their tanks full of fuel, workers still needed to add volatile liquid oxygen right before launch.

The Air Force took a major step toward achieving its ideal basing system in 1960 with the development of Titan II, which used storable liquid propellants. The Air Force could store Titan II missiles with fully-loaded propellant tanks, and fire them directly from underground silos. Nonetheless, Titan II missiles still needed constant attention from an on-site crew.

When Minuteman was added to the Nation's arsenal, America acquired its first truly pushbutton — literally turn-key — missile system. Historian Ernest Schwiebert noted:

With the successful utilization of solid propellants, the Minuteman could hide in its lethal lair like a shotgun shell, ready for instant firing. The operational launcher could be unmanned, underground, and hardened to withstand the surface burst of a nuclear weapon. Each launcher housed a single weapon and the equipment necessary to support and fire it, and required only periodic maintenance. The missiles could be fired . at a moment's notice.

Just as ICBMs evolved, so did their launch facilities. The first Atlas missiles were stored upright on launch pads, where they were vulnerable to attack. Later, the missiles were kept in horizontal, concrete "coffins" and raised vertically before launch. Eventually, the Air Force moved ICBMs to underground silos elevators lifted them to the surface for launch. Titan II and Minuteman were the first ICBMs launched directly from underground silos.

Minuteman Deployment and Site Selection

President John F. Kennedy (center), accompanied by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara (far left), SAC Commander General Thomas S. Power (right), and Lt. General Howell M. Estes, Jr. (right background) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, March 1962. US AIR FORCE, HISTORY DIVISION.

The Air Force wanted to deploy Minuteman as a single, immense, "missile farm," equipped with as many as 1,500 missiles. However, the Air Force soon determined that "for reasons of economy 150 launchers should be concentrated in a single area, whenever possible, and that no area should contain fewer than 50 missiles." Consequently, the Air Force organized the Minuteman force into a series of administrative units called "wings," each comprised of three or four 50-missile squadrons. Each squadron was further subdivided into five smaller units, called "flights." A flight consisted of a single, manned, launch control facility, linked to ten, unmanned, underground, missile silos. The silos were separated from the launch control facility and from each other by a distance of several miles.

The Air Force initially considered putting Minuteman missiles as far south as Georgia, Texas, and Oklahoma. But when early models of Minuteman missiles fell short of their intended 5,500-mile range, the Air Force selected sites in the northern part of the United States, which was closer to the Soviet Union. In 1960, the Air Force decided to locate the first Minuteman installation on the high plains around Great Falls, Montana, at Malmstrom AFB. In the event of a nuclear accident or attack, the low population density near Malmstrom AFB would minimize civilian casualties. In addition, the region offered an established network of roads and, like much of the West, a large amount of easy-to-acquire public land.

The Air Force began constructing the Nation's first Minuteman missile field on March 16, 1961. In the spring of 1962, the Associated Press reported that the Montana silos were being "rushed to completion," and that the first missiles, each loaded with "one megaton of death and destruction," would be ready by late summer. Air Force crews began lowering the weapons into the silos at the end of July, and Malmstrom AFB's first ten-missile flight was hurriedly activated on October 27, 1962, at the height of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Minuteman Comes to Ellsworth Air Force Base

Military strategists began planning for a second Minuteman installation shortly after work got underway at Malmstrom AFB. In June 1960, the Air Force was authorized to add another 150 missiles to the Minuteman force. By early October, military strategists had narrowed their search for a new site to three locations in North and South Dakota. On January 5, 1961, US Senator Francis Case of South Dakota announced that Ellsworth AFB would be the headquarters for the Nation's second Minuteman deployment. Located about 12 miles east of Rapid City, Ellsworth AFB was founded in 1941 as the Rapid City Army Air Base. The Air Corps used the airfield to train B-17 bomber crews, and Ellsworth eventually served as home base for many of America's largest strategic bombers. The base was also headquarters for a Titan I missile squadron.

US ICBM Size Comparisons Atlas, Titan I, Titan II, Minuteman

Typical of all Minuteman installations, I the forces at Ellsworth AFB were organized into a missile wing. The 44th Strategic Missile Wing at Ellsworth AFB was activated in 1963, and was comprised of three 50-missile squadrons: the 66th, 67th, and 68th Strategic Missile Squadrons.

Each squadron was further subdivided into five smaller units, called flights. A flight consisted of a single, manned, underground launch control center (LCC), which was linked through a system of underground cables to ten, unmanned, launch facilities (LF). Each LF held one Minuteman missile stored in an underground silo. The silos were separated from the LCC and each other by a distance of several miles.

Although the Defense Department had not yet officially authorized the South Dakota Minuteman installation, Senator Case wanted the land acquired immediately so there would be "no loss of valuable time" once the project was approved. Local ranchers did not share Case's sense of urgency. Fearing that the government might offer below-market prices for their land, the ranchers established the Missile Area Landowners' Association to negotiate fair prices. The association assured fellow citizens that its actions would "not necessarily slow the national defense effort."

While real estate negotiations were underway, the South Dakota State Highway Department spent $650,000 from the Federal Bureau of Public Roads to improve 327 miles of roads leading to the proposed missile sites. By June 1961, Boeing was busy improving the infrastructure. Anticipating that the project would bring in more than 3,000 workers, the company raced to build mobile home camps and cafeterias near Wall, Sturgis, Belle Fourche, and Union Center, as well as in Rapid City.

By early summer, more than three-quarters of the local landowners agreed to give the government access to their land. Once the sites were finalized, the Ralph M. Parsons Company, an architectural and engineering firm from Los Angeles, prepared plans for the Minuteman installation. The Air Force assigned responsibility for construction to the US Army Corps of Engineers Ballistic Missile Construction Office. In July 1961, four of the nation's largest construction firms submitted bids for the project. The low bid came from Peter Kiewit Sons Company of Omaha, whose estimate of $56,220,274 was nearly $10 million below government projections.

On September 10, 1961, the groundbreaking ceremony for Ellsworth AFB's Minuteman installations took place at Site L-6 near Bear Butte. The festivities started with a bang. While the Sturgis High School band played, representatives from Boeing, Kiewit, the Corps of Engineers, and Ellsworth AFB set off an explosive charge to begin the excavation.

Despite extreme cold, high winds, and heavy snowfall, construction proceeded at a furious pace through the winter of 1961-62. In mid-December, the Corps of Engineers told reporters that "men are working seven days a week, three shifts a day on Minuteman construction. " A Corps spokesman said that crews were "able to dig five silo emplacements simultaneously. Each takes from four to ten days . . . " The first squadron, near Wall, was well underway, said the Corps, and work on the second squadron, near Union Center, had already started. In February 1962, General Delmar Wilson told the Rapid City Chamber of Commerce that despite an ongoing labor dispute between Peter Kiewit Sons and the Ironworkers Union, South Dakota's ICBM deployment suffered fewer work stoppages than any missile program in the Nation. "We're all out . . . to assure that our way of life is maintained," stated Wilson. "This missile project . is the number one project in the country today. If this guy in Russia wants to start a show, we'll be there to put a hole in him to the best of our ability."

By early summer of 1963, the steel fabrication was finished at all 165 South Dakota sites, and crews were completing the silos at the rate of one per day. On the last day of June, the first 20 silos were turned over to the Strategic Air Command. On October 23, the Nation's second wing of Minuteman ICBMs was fully operational. The work was completed nearly three weeks ahead of schedule.

The 44th Strategic Missile Wing
Construction of a Minuteman LF

Peter Kiewit Sons of Omaha, Nebraska, received $56 million from the US Air Force to construct the 150 missile silos and 15 control centers in South Dakota. The Rapid City Journal described how a Minuteman silo was built: "Conventional earthmoving equipment scoops an open cut 12 feet deep. A backhoe perclies on the edge of a large hole in this cut and digs a hole 20 feet deeper. The remaining 52 feet of depth is `mined' by a clamshell . When each hole is at the full depth of 84 feet, a steel `can' 12 feet in diameter is carefully positioned in it. Reinforced concrete is poured between the can and earth. " Work began on South Dakota's first Minuteman silo on September 10, 1961. By 1963, all 150 launchers were declared fully operational.

The Air Force excavated lengthy trenches several miles long to install the underground cables that connected the underground launch control centers with the distant missile silos. OMAHA WORLD-HERALD


US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

Delta One's underground launch control center (LCC) was constructed as two separate structural elements. The outside protective shell is 29 feet in diameter and 54 feet in length, and is made of reinforced concrete with four-foot-thick walls. The shell's interior is lined with 1/4-inch-thick steel plate. Suspended inside the shell is the second element: a box-like acoustical enclosure that contains the launch control consoles, communications and monitoring equipment, and crew accommodations. Delta One's "topside" structures include sleeping and eating facilities.


US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

Backbone of the US Nuclear Arsenal

While the Ellsworth AFB sites were under construction, the Air Force was building several other Minuteman installations. By the end of 1967, the Nation had 1,000 Minuteman missiles on alert in six separate deployment areas located throughout the north-central United States. In addition to the original installations at Malmstrom AFB and Ellsworth AFB, Minuteman complexes were deployed at Minot AFB and Grand Forks AFB in North Dakota, Whiteman AFB in Missouri, and F .E. Warren AFB in Wyoming. In addition, another squadron was established at Malmstrom AFB. At each installation the Air Force continued to improve and refine the Minuteman operational system.

Newly-elected President John F. Kennedy instigated one of the first significant improvements to the Minuteman weapon system. Soon after taking office in 1961, Kennedy learned that even if he ordered a massive nuclear retaliation to a Soviet attack, a portion of the Soviet's long-range nuclear force would survive to strike again. As a consequence, the Kennedy administration quickly abandoned the strategic policy of releasing America's entire nuclear arsenal in "one horrific spasm." Instead of massive retaliation, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara recommended a "flexible response." Should deterrence fail, McNamara proposed that America's nuclear weapons be deployed selectively. The first ICBMs would target enemy bombers and missile sites. The remaining ICBMs would be held in reserve, for potential use against Soviet cities. McNamara hoped that the threat to the civilian population would persuade the Soviet Union to end the conflict. McNamara began retooling America's nuclear forces, including Minuteman, to reflect the new military strategy.

However, Colonel Edward Hall and his engineers designed Minuteman to be a fastreacting, mass-attack weapon. Upon receiving the launch command, the officers at each Minuteman facility had to fire all ten missiles under their control. A selective launch of fewer than ten missiles was impossible. In order to conform with the new defense strategy, Air Force engineers had to redesign Minuteman's launch control complex. Historian Clyde Littlefield described the changes:

In order to conform to the new concept, engineering changes had to be made to allow a combat crew in a control center to switch targets and to fire one or more missiles selectively, conserving the remainder for later use. Greater flexibility in targeting and firing required a significant extension to the limited survival time [of each operational site]. The [original] Minuteman facility design did not provide for the protection of the power supply. At a control center, power generators were above the ground. When and if these generators stopped functioning, the operational potential of the system would be reduced to only six hours. Revised strategic concepts required that the weapon survive at least nine weeks after an initial enemy attack.

To meet this requirement, the Air Force put the generators in underground capsules next to each launch control center. Although the Air Force considered incorporating these generators into the Minuteman facilities at Ellsworth AFB, construction was already underway there, making the changes impractical. Consequently, the generator capsules began with the third Minuteman deployment area at Minot AFB in North Dakota.

The Next Generations: Minuteman II and III

By the time planning began for the final Minuteman deployment area, the Air Force had developed a vastly improved version of the missile. Called Minuteman II, the new missile offered improved range, greater payload, more flexible targeting, and greater accuracy, leading one Air Force spokesperson to estimate that its "kill capacity" was eight times that of Minuteman I. Minuteman II was deployed first at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota. In September 1965, South Dakota Congressman E.Y. Berry announced that the Ellsworth AFB facilities would also receive the new missile system. According to Berry, Minuteman II would help Ellsworth AFB remain "one of the nation's most important military installations." In October 1971, Boeing began refitting the Ellsworth silos to accommodate Minuteman II, and completed the project in March 1973.

Ellsworth Air Force Base: Delta Flight, Minuteman II ICBM. HISTORIC ENGINEERING RECORD, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE (click on image for an enlargement in a new window)

In May 1964, the Soviet Union displayed a battery of anti-ballistic missiles in Moscow's Red Square, prompting concern about the vulnerability of Minuteman I and II missiles. The following year, the Air Force began to develop an even more advanced version of the missile. By late summer of 1968, Minuteman III was ready for testing. Longer and more powerful than its predecessors, Minuteman III offered an improved guidance system that could be retargeted in minutes. But, according to the New York Times, the missile's "most telling advantage" lay in its "revolutionary new warhead: the MIRV, or multiple independently targeted reentry vehicle." The MIRV could deliver three hydrogen bombs to widely scattered targets, a capability that would "render current and contemplated antimissile defense systems largely inadequate," and "thrust the world into a new era of weapons for mass destruction."

The Air Force deployed Minuteman III at Warren, Minot, Grand Forks, and Malmstrom Air Force Bases, and extensively modified the Minuteman launchers at these locations to accommodate the new missiles. Each launch tube was equipped with a new suspension system that could hold the missile absolutely motionless during the aftershocks of a nuclear attack. The Air Force also installed a system of seals, filters, and surge arrestors designed to prevent electronic equipment from being damaged by the powerful electromagnetic waves generated during nuclear explosions.

In July 1975, when the last of the Nation's 550 Minuteman III missiles was lowered into its silo at Malmstrom AFB, Montana, only 450 Minutemen II remained in the American arsenal — at Malmstrom, Ellsworth, and Whiteman Air Force Bases. This force structure remained intact for nearly two more decades.

The first Minuteman LCCs, such as Delta One, were dependent on life-support equipment in the above-ground LCF support building. In later versions, the Air Force buried the life-support equipment underground to help it better withstand a nuclear attack.

The Air Force also redesigned the launch facilities to improve survivability. The power supply unit (shown to the right of each silo) was buried deeper underground, and encapsulated in hardened concrete. The Delta Nine site represents the earliest configuration.

Deactivation of the Minuteman II Weapon System

The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 marked the beginning of the end of the Cold War. On July 31, 1991, President George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which placed a limit on the worldwide number of ICBMs and prescribed a process for their destruction. The treaty coincided with the end of the Cold War, and the Air Force's growing disenchantment with the escalating costs of repairing and maintaining the Minuteman II system. On September 27, 1991, President Bush announced on national television his "plan for peace." As part of the plan, Bush called for "the withdrawal from alert, within 72 hours," of all 450 Minuteman II missiles, including those at Ellsworth AFB.

On December 3, 1991, an Air Force crew arrived to remove the first of Ellsworth AFB's 150 Minuteman II missiles: Golf Two (G-2), a launch facility near Red Owl, about 60 miles northeast of Rapid City. The Rapid City Daily Journal reported on the crew's progress.

Disarmament began with snow shovels at dawn . as Airman 1st Class James Comfert and his colleagues cleared the launch-door rail. Six hours later, a Minuteman II intercontinental ballistic missile was stored safely in its transporter/erector truck. G-2 was just a high-tech hole in the ground.

According to the Rapid City Daily Journal, the Minuteman deactivation process at Ellsworth AFB would continue for at least three more years:

First, warheads and guidance systems [will be] removed. Then the missiles will be pulled. . . . The headframes of the missile silos will be destroyed and the tubes will be filled with rubble. The launch control capsules will be buried under rubble and a thick concrete cap. The land and above-ground buildings at launch control centers will be sold.

Although all of the Minuteman II facilities at Ellsworth AFB were slated for demolition, the Air Force, in conjunction with the National Park Service, selected two representative sites — Launch Control Facility Delta One and Launch Facility Delta Nine — for possible preservation as nationally significant icons of the Cold War. When the Minuteman II deactivation is completed in the mid-1990s, these two Ellsworth AFB sites will be the only remaining intact examples of the original Minuteman configuration.

Evolution of Minuteman Facilities

On September 27, 1991, President George Bush announced his "plan for peace," which included the "withdrawal from alert, within 72 hours, of all 450 Minuteman II intercontinental ballistic missiles." The actual physical removal of the missiles began in December 1991, when Air Force crews began pulling the unarmed Minutemen from their silos. Cables were lowered from a transporter/erector truck and attached to the missile by a crew inside the silo. The missile was then slowly raised into the truck and secured for transport.


Home Recording Revolution

It all began in 1979, when the TEAC 144 became the first four-track recorder to utilize a standard cassette tape. The unit resembled a mini-version of the classic 388 with its black chassis, multicolored knobs, and analog VU meters. The 244 and 246 were the first to bear the “Portastudio” name and upped the ante with sweepable stacked-knob EQs and dbx noise reduction.

Undoubtedly, many great (and not-so-great) songs were made on these first units in bedrooms and basements worldwide, but it took a bit more development before the four-track cassette format really came into its own.


Die Arado SD I war das erste Jagdflugzeugmodell, das bei der Arado Handelsgesellschaft in Warnemünde gebaut wurde. Konstrukteur war Walter Rethel. Es flossen viele Erfahrungen seiner vorherigen Arbeit bei Fokker ein. Das sehr kompakte Modell war in Gemischtbauweise ausgeführt. Ungewöhnlich war der Verzicht auf Spanndrähte. Die SD I hatte einen 425 PS leistenden luftgekühlten 9-Zylinder-Sternmotor Bristol Jupiter, der von Gnôme et Rhône in Lizenz hergestellt wurde. Die Bewaffnung bestand aus zwei synchronisierten 7,92-mm-Maschinengewehren MG 08/15. Der Erstflug des ersten von zwei gebauten Prototypen fand am 11. Oktober 1927 statt. Es zeigten sich sehr schlechte Langsamflugeigenschaften. Wegen der unzureichend erscheinenden Struktur forderte das Reichswehrministerium einen Neuentwurf, der zur SD II führte.

Die Neukonstruktion wurde ebenfalls von Walter Rethel durchgeführt. Die SD II war größer und schwerer als die SD I. Die deutlich konservativere Auslegung hatte verspannte Tragflächen. Der einzige Prototyp wurde 1929 als Wettbewerber zur Heinkel HD 37 fertiggestellt. Als Antrieb diente ein von Siemens & Halske hergestellter 530 PS starker 9-Zylinder-Sternmotor Jupiter VI mit Untersetzungsgetriebe und einem großen 3-Blatt-Propeller. Die Bewaffnung bestand wieder aus zwei synchronisierten 7,92-mm-08/15-Maschinengewehren. Trotz schwieriger Handhabung bildete die SD II die Basis für die spätere Ar 64.

Die SD III entstand aus dem Flugwerk des zweiten Prototyps der SD II ausgerüstet war sie mit einem von Siemens & Halske hergestellten Jupiter VI mit 510 PS und kleinerem direkt angetriebenen 2-Blatt-Propeller. Die vorderen Konturen waren überarbeitet und aufgrund des kleineren Propellers konnte ein niedrigeres Fahrwerk installiert werden. Die Bewaffnung entsprach der bereits in der SD II eingebauten.

Die Ar 64a wurde direkt von der SD II und SD III abgeleitet, jedoch mit einer hinsichtlich der Aerodynamik deutlich verbesserten Rumpfkonstruktion, insbesondere durch den weiter nach hinten versetzten und verkleideten Jupiter-VI-Motor. Die Ar 64a hatte einen Vierblatt-Holzpropeller. Ausgelöst wurde die Entwicklung durch eine Anforderung des Reichswehrministerium nach einem Nachfolger für die in Lipezk verwendeten Fokker D.XIII. Der Erstflug der Ar 64a fand im Frühjahr 1929 statt.

Die nächsten beiden Prototypen, genannt Ar 64b, waren mit einem wassergekühlten V12-Zylinder-Motor BMW VI 6,3 mit einer Leistung von 640 PS ausgerüstet. Sie wurden 1931 in Lipezk getestet.

Die Ar 64c entsprach mit kleineren strukturellen Änderungen der Ar 64a. Die Serienproduktion dieser Version begann parallel zur Ar 64d und Ar 64e. Diese unterschieden sich von der Ar 64c durch ein überarbeitetes Leitwerk und untereinander im Wesentlichen durch das Getriebe (d mit, e ohne) und den Propeller (d mit 4-Blatt-, e mit 2-Blatt-Propeller).

Zwischen 1931 und 1934 wurden 30 Ar 64 gebaut, davon zwölf bei Focke-Wulf. Am 1. April 1933 waren sechs Ar 64d und fünf Ar 64e vorhanden. Bis Ende 1934 wurden 19 Ar 64 ausgeliefert. Diese gingen zuerst an die Jagdfliegerschule Schleißheim und anschließend an die Jagdstaffeln der Gruppe Döberitz. Am 1. Juli 1936 waren noch 21 Ar 64 bei der Luftwaffe vorhanden. Der Nachfolger wurde die Arado Ar 65.


The Middle Colonies

In 1664, King Charles II gave the territory between New England and Virginia, much of which was already occupied by Dutch traders and landowners called patroons, to his brother James, the Duke of York. The English soon absorbed Dutch New Netherland and renamed it New York, but most of the Dutch people (as well as the Belgian Flemings and Walloons, French Huguenots, Scandinavians and Germans who were living there) stayed put. This made New York one of the most diverse and prosperous colonies in the New World.

In 1680, the king granted 45,000 square miles of land west of the Delaware River to William Penn, a Quaker who owned large swaths of land in Ireland. Penn’s North American holdings became the colony of “Penn’s Woods,” or Pennsylvania. Lured by the fertile soil and the religious toleration that Penn promised, people migrated there from all over Europe. Like their Puritan counterparts in New England, most of these emigrants paid their own way to the colonies–they were not indentured servants𠄺nd had enough money to establish themselves when they arrived. As a result, Pennsylvania soon became a prosperous and relatively egalitarian place.


FINRA examiners conduct periodic Statutory Disqualification examinations to ensure compliance with supervisory conditions set forth in the agreed heightened plan of supervision. FINRA classifies individuals and members subject to disqualification into three tiers with corresponding examination requirements.

Tier I generally consists of individuals and members subject to disqualification because of securities or commodities-related misconduct including crimes described in Section 15(b)(4) of the Exchange Act.

Tier II generally consists of individuals and members subject to disqualification whose disqualifying misconduct does not relate to activities enumerated in Tier I or Tier III (below). The disqualifying event for Tier II members and individuals in most circumstances will be based on (1) felonies that are not securities or commodities related or (2) findings by certain foreign entities.

Disqualified members and persons in Tiers I and II are subject to periodic examination. FINRA staff has discretion to conduct more frequent or additional SD examinations if warranted.

Tier III consists of those individuals and members subject to disqualification that were permitted to associate or remain as a member without any plan of heightened supervision. There are no special examination requirements associated with this class of disqualified persons and members.

Pursuant to Section 12(b) of Schedule A to the FINRA By-Laws, members employing Tier I disqualified persons are required to pay an annual fee in the amount of $1,500. Members that employ Tier II disqualified persons are required to pay an annual fee in the amount of $1,000.

Any questions related to CRED can be directed to [email protected] or Chris Dragos, Director, Regulatory Review and Disclosure at (240) 386-5440. All other questions related to FINRA’s Eligibility Process can be directed to [email protected] or Patricia Delk-Mercer, Senior Director and Counsel, Statutory Disqualification, (240) 386-5461.


Pogledajte video: Big Engines Starting Up


Delta Nine Missile Pull, 1993