18 oktobra 1944

18 oktobra 1944


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18 oktobra 1944

Rat na moru

Kraljevska mornarica zauzima Scarpanto i Santorini

Zrakoplov iz eskadrile br.540, čiji su članovi posada poručnik Hubert Charles Sidney 'Sandy' Powell i narednik Joe Townsend, fotografira Tirpitz i Tromso, potvrđujući ranije obavještajne izvještaje. Powell je dobio DFC za let. Napad na nju 29. oktobra nije uspio, ali je drugi napad RAF -a 12. novembra konačno potonuo Tirpitz.

Grčka

Grčka vlada se vratila iz egzila u Atinu

Njemačka

Oni preostali Nijemci između 16 i 60 godina upisani su u Volkssturm

Kina

Naređeno je generalu Stilwellu da se vrati u Sjedinjene Države

Pacifik

Japanska vlada naređuje veliku kontraofanzivu, kodnog naziva "Sho"



Događaji od 18. oktobra 1944

Bio sam u 94. terenskoj reg. RA koji je otišao u Normandiju neposredno nakon Dana D i prošao put kroz Francusku, Belgiju i Hollan gdje smo učestvovali u bitci kod Arnhema. Nakon dvije sedmice u Elatu preselili smo se na jug do njemačke granice u blizini Rajhsfeldske šume gdje smo imali još puno vatre. No jednog popodneva stiglo je naređenje da se svi br. 1 jave na komandno mjesto, pa sam, budući da sam bio zadužen za oružje No4, otišao očekivati ​​da će biti uređen još jedan veliki vatrogasni plan, ali, iznenađenje, iznenađenje, to je bila vijest o 48 -satnom dopustu u Brisel za jednog čovjeka po odjeljenju uključuje jednog narednika. od nas četvorice. Bio je to slučaj izvlačenja. Najviše sam se iznenadio kad sam pobijedio, a moji momci su rekli da sam to sigurno zeznuo, pa sam, kako bih sačuvao mir, rekao da ću obavljati dužnost cijelu noć.
Kad je jutarnji "stand to" prošao, krenuo sam prema zadnjem dijelu položaja gdje je kamion sa kuhačom sa doručkom čekao sve dečke. Pa, doručak se sastojao od 'kaše' (to je bio tvrdi keks zdrobljen i kuhan u vodi da liči na kašu). Došao sam ja red i kuharica je moju sipala u moj dixie, sjećam se da sam vidio kako je iskliznula na zemlju dok je sve postalo crno. Kad sam se probudio, ležao sam na zemlji s nogama gotovo u velikoj vatri! Pokušao sam ustati, ali nisam mogao otpuzati i dalje ne znajući što se dogodilo. Očigledno je granata pala na kamion i cijela stvar je raznesena u komade. Dva čovjeka su poginula, devet je ranjeno, a dvojica su kasnije umrla u bolnici. Kad sam na kraju stigao do Hitne pomoći, otkrio sam da sam bio pogođen osam puta, jedan prilično gadan komad slomio mi je gležanj i oduzeo dio čizme i veliki komad mesa, još tri u mesnatom dijelu nogu i četiri sitni komadići koji su ostavljeni da se sami riješe.
Nas četvorica smo vozilom hitne pomoći odvezeni u bolnicu Nijmegan koju je operiralo britansko i njemačko osoblje. Ubacili su me u odjel koji je već bio pun, ali imao sam nosila između dva kreveta na kojima smo se skoro dodirivali. Moje stanje nije bilo opasno po život pa tog dana nisam primio nikakvu terapiju. Tokom noći neprijatelj je otvorio vatru iz dalekometnog oružja i granatirao odjel u kojem sam bio. Krov je ušao, a mi smo bili prekriveni ruševinama. Momak pored mene je ubijen, ali su me izvukli sa još nekoliko modrica!
Ponovo smo krenuli kolima hitne pomoći nazad u Ajndhoven gdje su nas čuvale časne sestre. Bili su jako dobri prema nama i učinili su sve što su mogli, ali nije bilo medicinske njege.
Ovo je bio početak mog dugog putovanja kući.

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Oktobra 1944

C trupa stigla je u Lenoncourt, Francuska, na zasluženi odmor trećeg dana oktobra, nakon šezdeset dana neprestane vožnje i borbi. Lenoncourt je bio mali, jedan od onih seoskih gradova s ​​gomilama stajskog gnoja, francuski znak bogatstva, nimalo se ne razlikuje od bezbroj drugih sela koja su prošla na gotovo 500 milja pređenih od 3. augusta kada smo prvi put vidjeli akciju u Fougeresu ( karta I) (karta 15).

U Lenoncourt -u je četa bila smještena u štale i svaki vod je imao svog kuhara. Vrijeme je počelo postajati hladnije, vjetar je rezao, a dani su obično bili vlažni. Osam dana smo se odmarali u gradu, odlazili na noćne predstave u eskadrilu CP, nismo čuvali stražu i imali smo dosta za jesti.

Dana 11. oktobra, trupa se iselila iz Lenoncourt -a, krenuvši prema Parroyu (karta 29a) (karta OHW). U Henamenilu, u blizini našeg odredišta, otkriveno je da je put u Parroy bio jako miniran. Budući da je uklanjanje zahtijevalo previše vremena, trupa je sjahala i pješice krenula u zauzimanje grada, oslobađajući C trupu 42d. Predstraže su uspostavljene u šumama istočno od grada i dva dana su stvari bile mirne, iako su naše razjašnjene patrole pretražile šumu u tom području.

Dana 13. neprijateljska artiljerija počela je napadati Parroya. Sgt. Proebstle, vod sgt. drugog voda, ranjen je kada je granata pogodila plotun voda. (Napomena: Zarobljena karta neprijateljskog topništva imala je broj koncentracije na KP u Parroyu.) Patrola od četiri čovjeka poslana je u pokušaju da otkrije neprijateljske položaje, naletjela je na mitraljesko gnijezdo i vratio se samo jedan čovjek, Pvt. DeFeo. Kasnije tog dana jedna od stražara primijetila je neke njemačke vojnike kako nose muškarca u polu -skloništu i, nakon što su sklopili primirje, otkrili su da žele vratiti dva pripadnika patrole, Sgt. Thompson i Pvt. Reidle. Thompson, vođa patrole, i Reidle su nakon polučasovnog primirja predati našim ljekarima. Pvt. Frederick Idzior, četvrti član patrole, nikada nije pronađen i prijavljen je kao nestao u akciji.

U naredna četiri dana poslano je više patrola, od kojih je većina ispalila neprijateljsku vatru, ali je u tom razdoblju pretrpjela samo jednu žrtvu, Sgt. Douglas, koji je bio ranjen.

Odred je otpušten do 42. dana ujutro 18. i povukao se u Bathelmont (karta 29a) na vrijeme odmora.

U izvještaju Grupe od 19. oktobra napominje se da je “Pruža A, 42. eskadrila, priključena 328. pješadijskom puku ”. Dana 20., 42. eskadrila krenula je da zauzme uzvišenje na grebenu Moncourt sve dok 26. divizija nije napala Moncourt (karta 29a) (OHW). Eskadrila je napala zajedno sa 104. pješadijskim pukom na sjeveru i 121. konjičkom eskadrilom na jugu ”. (Napomena: “ Hambone ” šuma (karta OHW) zauzeta je u ovom naletu 20. oktobra. C trupa je napala s desne strane istočno. B je prošla i napala sjeverno do Bois Frontiere (karta OHW).


Danas u istoriji Drugog svjetskog rata - 18. septembra 1939. i#038 1944

Prije 80 godina - 18. septembar 1939 .: Njemačke i sovjetske trupe povezuju se u Brest-Litovsku u Poljskoj.

Poljski kriptografi bježe u Pariz sa vitalnim podacima o njemačkim šiframa Enigme.

Ljudi iz Ajndhovena, Holandija, plešu na gradskom trgu nakon oslobođenja, 20. septembra 1944. (Carski ratni muzej 4905-03 TR 2369)

Prije 75 godina - septembar. 18, 1944: U operaciji Market Garden britanske kopnene trupe povezuju se sa 101 -om vazdušno -desantnom divizijom SAD -a u Eindhovenu u Holandiji.

Deveta američka armija zauzima ključnu luku Brest u Francuskoj.

Južno od Sumatre, pod HMS Tradewind potopi teretni brod japanske vojske Junyo Maru 5620 poginulih, uključujući javanske roblje i 1477 savezničkih zarobljenika, što je najveći pomorski gubitak u historiji do sada.

Američke trupe bore se u Brestu, Bretanja, Francuska, septembar 1944. (Centar vojne istorije američke vojske)


Ovaj dan u crnoj istoriji: 18. oktobar 1944


Dana 18. oktobra 1944. glumac i aktivista za građanska prava Paul Robeson odlikovan je Spingarn medaljom Nacionalnog udruženja za napredak obojenih osoba (NAACP) za svoja dostignuća u umjetnosti.

Roberon je rođen u Princetonu, New Jersey, 9. aprila 1898. Postao je jedan od najistaknutijih izvođača tokom Harlemske renesanse, pojavljujući se u mnogim produkcijama, uključujući Imperator Jones i Svi Božji Chillun Got Wings.

Sin odbjeglog roba, Robeson se aktivno zalagao protiv rasizma i duboko se uključio u pokret za građanska prava. Njegovo odbijanje da javno ukori svoja uvjerenja dovelo ga je do toga da se 1940 -ih i 1950 -ih nađe na crnoj listi filmova.

Robeson je 23. januara 1976. umro u 77. godini života nakon pretrpljenog moždanog udara.


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Ovaj dan u crnoj istoriji: 18. oktobar 1944


18. oktobra 1944. glumac i aktivista za građanska prava Paul Robeson odlikovan je Spingarn medaljom Nacionalnog udruženja za napredak obojenih osoba (NAACP) za svoja dostignuća u umjetnosti.

Roberon je rođen u Princetonu, New Jersey, 9. aprila 1898. Postao je jedan od najistaknutijih izvođača tokom Harlemske renesanse, pojavljujući se u mnogim produkcijama, uključujući Imperator Jones i Svi Božji Chillun Got Wings.

Sin odbjeglog roba, Robeson se aktivno zalagao protiv rasizma i duboko se uključio u pokret za građanska prava. Njegovo odbijanje da javno ukori svoja uvjerenja dovelo ga je do toga da je 1940 -ih i 1950 -ih stavljen na crnu listu filmova.

23. januara 1976. Robeson je umro u 77. godini života nakon pretrpljenog moždanog udara.


BET Nacionalne vesti - Budite u toku sa najnovijim vestima iz cele zemlje, uključujući naslove iz sveta hip hopa i zabave. Kliknite ovdje kako biste se pretplatili na naš bilten.


Kubanski predsjednici

Prvi Kubanac koji je obnašao funkciju predsjednika bio je Carlos Manuel de C & eacutespedes y Castillo. Izabran je nakon što je oslobodio robove i započeo prvi rat za nezavisnost Kube, koji se sada pamti kao desetogodišnji rat.

Ustavna konvencija koja se sastala godine Guaimaro (10. aprila 1869) ne samo da je de C & eacutespedes izabran za prvog predsjednika Kube, već je članom 24 ustava donesenog na ovom sastanku okončana praksa ropstva na Kubi. (Naravno, njihova vlast proširila se samo na područja koja su kontrolirali pobunjenici, a tek je oktobra 1886. ropstvo na Kubi legalno prestalo.)

Kubanski pobunjenici imali su šest predsjednika prije Desetogodišnji rat došlo je do pat pozicije koja je završila 1878. godine, a niti Španjolsko carstvo niti američka vlada nisu priznali nijednog od ovih predsjednika, niti pravo Kubanki da sami definiraju svoju vladu.

  • Kubanski predsjednici tokom desetogodišnjeg rata
    - Carlos Manuel de C & eacutespedes y Castillo (12. aprila 1869. - 27. oktobra 1873.)
    - Salvador Cisneros Betancourt (27. oktobar 1873 - 28. jun 1875)
    - Juan Bautista Spotorno (1. jula 1875. - 29. marta 1876.)
    - Tom & aacutes Estrada Palma (29. mart 1876. - 19. oktobar 1877)
    - Francisco Javier de Jes & uacutes (19. oktobar - 13. decembar 1877)
    - Vicente Garcia y Gonzalez (13. decembar 1877 - 10. februar 1878)
  • Kubanski predsjednici tokom Rata za nezavisnost (1895-1898)
    - Jos & eacute Mart & iacute y P & eacuterez (5. maja 1895. - 19. maja 1895.)
    - Salvador Cisneros Betancourt (16. septembar 1895 - 30. oktobar 1897)
    - Bartolom & eacute Mas & oacute M & aacuterquez (30. oktobar 1897 - 7. novembar 1898)
  • Američki guverneri za vrijeme vojne okupacije 1898. i 1906. godine
    - John Rutter Brooke (1. januar - 23. decembar 1899)
    - Leonard Wood (23. decembar 1899. - 20. maj 1902.)
    - William Howard Taft (29. septembar - 13. oktobar 1906
    - Charles Edward Magoon (13. oktobra 1906. - 28. januara 1909.)
  • Predsjednici Kubanske Republike
    - Tomas Estrada Palma (20. maj 1902. - 28. septembar 1906.)
    - 2. vojna okupacija (1906-1909)
    - Jos & eacute Miguel G & oacutemez (28. januara 1909. - 20. maja 1913.)
    - Aurelio Mario Garc & iacutea Menocal (20. maja 1913. - 20. maja 1921.)
    - Alfredo Zayas Alfonso (20. maj 1921. - 20. maj 1925.)
    - Gerardo Machado y Morales (20. maj 1925 - 12. avgust 1933)
    - Carlos Manuel de C & eacutespedes Quesada (12. august - 4. septembar 1933)
    - Ramon Grau San Mart & iacuten (4. septembar 1933. - 15. januar 1934)
    - Carlos Hevia y de los Reyes (15. januar - 18. januar 1934)
    - Carlos Manuel Marquez Sterling (18. januar - 18. januar 1934)
    - Carlos Mendieta y Montefur (18. januara 1934 - 11. decembra 1935)
    - Jos & eacute A. Barnet y Vinajeras (11. decembar 1935 - 20. maj 1936)
    - Miguel Mariano G & oacutemez (20. maj 1936 - 23. decembar 1936)
    - Federico Laredo Bru (23. decembar 1936 - 10. oktobar 1940)
    - Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar (10. oktobra 1940. - 10. oktobra 1944.)
    - Ram & oacuten Grau San Martin (10. oktobra 1944 - 10. oktobra 1948)
    - Carlos Pr & iacuteo Socarr & aacutes (10. oktobar 1948. - 10. mart 1952.)

Korištenje ove web stranice podrazumijeva potpuno slaganje sa odredbama i uslovima pod kojima je ova stranica dostupna.


1944 - Oswald Avery identificirao je DNK kao "princip transformacije"

Do 1940 -ih, naučnici su razumjeli principe nasljeđivanja znatno napredovali - poznato je da su geni diskretne jedinice nasljedstva, kao i da stvaraju enzime koji kontroliraju metaboličke funkcije. Međutim, tek 1944. godine deoksiribonukleinska kiselina (DNK) je identificirana kao „princip transformacije“.

Čovjek koji je napravio iskorak bio je Oswald Avery, imunohemičar u bolnici Rockefeller Instituta za medicinska istraživanja. Avery je godinama radio s bakterijom odgovornom za upalu pluća, pneumokok i otkrio je da će, ako se živi, ​​ali bezopasni oblik pneumokoka pomiješa s inertnim, ali smrtonosnim oblikom, bezopasne bakterije uskoro postati smrtonosne.

Odlučan u namjeri da otkrije koja je tvar odgovorna za transformaciju, udružio je snage s Colinom MacLeodom i Maclyn McCarty i počeo pročišćavati 20 galona bakterija. Ubrzo je primijetio da se čini da supstanca nije protein ili ugljikohidrat, već nukleinska kiselina, pa je daljnjom analizom otkriveno da je to DNK.

Godine 1944., nakon dugog razmišljanja, Avery i njegove kolege objavili su članak u časopisu Journal of Experimental Medicine u kojem su opisali prirodu DNK kao „princip transformacije“. Iako u to vrijeme genetičari nisu čitali ovaj članak, on je inspirirao daljnja istraživanja, otvarajući put jednom od najvećih otkrića 20. stoljeća.


Vlastelinstva i druga imanja, str. 184. Ekonomska istorija, str. 197. Močvare, str. 203. Šuma, str. 204. Lokalna uprava i siromaštvo do 1836., str. 205. Lokalna uprava nakon 1836. godine, str. 208. Javne usluge, str. 211. Parlamentarno predstavništvo, str. 214. Crkve, str. 214. Rimokatolicizam, str. 223. Protestantska neskladnost, str. 223. Judaizam, str. 233. Obrazovanje, str. 233. Dobrotvorne organizacije za siromašne, str. 239.

Leyton, 'tun' na rijeci Lea, leži oko 5 milja sjeveroistočno od Londona između rijeke i šume Epping. Dio je londonske četvrti Waltham Forest. (napomena 1) To je uglavnom spavaonica predgrađa malih kuća izgrađenih između 1870. i 1910. godine, prošaranih modernim blokovima i kulama. Industrija je rasuta, osim željezničkog kompleksa Temple Mills na jugozapadu i koncentracije fabrika na sjeverozapadu. Drevna župa bila je poznata kao Low Leyton, jer je dio nje nisko ležao kraj Lea. 1868. godine, na zahtjev redakcije, direktori Velike istočne željeznice složili su se da stanicu Low Leyton preimenuju u 'Leyton'. (fn. 2) Građanska župa ostala je Low Leyton do 1921. godine, kada je prefiks odbačen. (napomena 3) Župa je bila duga oko 2 milje od sjevera prema jugu. Njegova sjeverna granica, dijeljena s Walthamstowom, išla je ravno 3 milje od šume do rijeke, Forest Riseom do Whipps Crossa, duž Kestenjarske šetnje (sada dio Lea Bridge Road), zatim linijom moderne Boundary Road do Mark House, i dalje do rijeke u blizini planine Wharf. (fusnota 4) Arheološkim dokazima nije potvrđen prijedlog da se ova duga ravna granica može podudarati s linijom nekadašnjeg rimskog puta (fn. 5). Istočna granica marširala je prema jugu sa Wansteadom, zaobilazeći Eagle Pond i Bushwood u Wansteadu, do Tinkers Lane (Harrow Road). Rov Wanstead formirao je južnu granicu s Wansteadom i West Ham -om. Zapadna granica slijedila je stari tok rijeke Lea kakav je postojao prije nego što ga je navigacija Lea zaobišla 1767. (fn. 6) od planine Wharf prema jugu do račvanja u rijeci, gdje se granica nastavljala do hramskih mlinova duž hramskih mlinova ili olovo Mill stream. Ovo je 1602. bilo poznato kao potok Shire (fn. 7), a nakon 1835. kao rijeka Vodovod teklo je uz Quartermile Lane, ali je ispunjeno 1952. Mali komad Hackneya leži na istočnoj strani rijeke neposredno iznad Most Lea.

Leyton Municipal Borough. Ili, tri chevronela gules, na glavnom gules lav prolaznik, ili.

Drevna župa se sastojala od 2.271 a. Njegov najsjeverniji dio, 588 a. A., Bio je odvojen od ostatka Walthamstow slipom. Ovaj hodnik od 3 milje koji pripada župi Walthamstow varirao je u širini od oko 50 do 100 metara (fn. 8) i sadržavao je 98a. Njegovo porijeklo je neizvjesno, iako postoje različite tradicije. (fn. 9) Išla je od Orlovskog jezerca, iza Forest House -a, preko King's End -a (Leyton Green), južno od ulice Capworth, preko terena Leyton House -a, do rijeke tik ispod Konja i Mladoženje. Na kartama iz 1699. i kasnije (napomena 10) prikazano je presijecanje polja ravno od oznake do oznake, obično bez obzira na prirodne granice. Nije poznato da li se Slip odvojio od Leytona ili sjeverni dio Leytona od Walthamstowa, ostavljajući ovaj uski ostatak na jugu. No kako je Slip bio dio vlastelinstva Walthamstow Tony, (fusnota 11), njegovo pripisivanje desetine župi Walthamstow vjerovatno datira s početka 12. stoljeća, kada su vlastelinstvo, crkvu i desetinu Walthamstowa držali Ralph de Tony i njegova supruga Alice . (fusnota 12) Granične oznake klizanja često su se osporavale ili su se, kao 1723. godine, namjerno mijenjale. (fusnota 13) 1858. Leyton je osporio Walthamstowov pokušaj da uspostavi svoj put kroz najvrjedniji dio filtrirnih kreveta kompanije vodovoda. (fn. 14) 1873. novoosnovana gradska sanitarna četvrt Leyton uključivala je Slip, koji je također bio spojen sa građanskom župom Leyton 1878. (fn. 15) Wanstead Slip (oko 207 a.) je dodan okrugu 1875, ali je činila zasebnu građansku župu (Cann Hall) 1894. (fusnona 16) Manje prilagodbe granica s Wansteadom uslijedile su 1887. i 1900. Leyton je postao općinski okrug 1926. Godine 1961. njegovo područje je bilo 2.595 a. (fn. 17) Postao je dio Waltham Forest 1965. godine, godine koja je u većini svrha uzeta kao krajnja tačka ovog članka.

Leyton se uzdiže od močvarnog područja doline Lea do više od 100 stopa na Whipps Crossu i High Stoneu na rubu šume. (fusnota 18) Između aluvijalnih močvara i šume nalaze se terase dolinskog šljunka iznad ciglane. (fn. 19) Tri glavna vodotoka prolaze kroz župu. Rov Wanstead, poznat i kao rijeka Holt, ušao je u župu iz Walthamstowa na krajnjem sjeveroistoku, prešao u Wanstead iznad Visokog kamena, ponovo se pojavio u Leyspringu tečući južno do Tinkers Lanea, a zatim jugozapadno od Sauls Greena do Hollowaya Dolje i zapadno do Temple Mills. (fn. 20) Nekad otvorena kanalizacija (fn. 21) sada je propuštena. Phillebrook ili Fillebrook, 'Phepes Broke' 1537., (fusnota 22) ušli su u Leyton iz Walthamstowa zapadno od Whipps Crossa, tečući južno i jugozapadno kako bi se pridružili potoku Dagenham zapadno od Ruckholtsa. Godine 1868. još je bio otvoren, (fusnota 23), ali je 1904. doveden cijevima od James Lanea do kanalizacijskih radova u Auckland Roadu, posljednji otvoreni dio od West End Avenue do James Lane je zatvoren ubrzo nakon toga. (fn. 24) Dolina erodirana Phillebrookom (fn. 25) prepoznatljiva je na Leyton High Roadu pored krunidbenih vrtova, gdje je nekad postojao brijeg. Potok Dagenham, koji teče sa Higham Hill -a u Walthamstowu, podijelio je močvaru i uzvišenje. (fusnota 26) Sjeverno od Marsh Lanea pridružila joj se pritoka, kanalizacija Shortlands, koja također teče iz Walthamstowa, ali dalje prema zapadu. (fn. 27) Ovo je formiralo granicu između uključenog močvarnog i lamskog zemljišta i sada je ugrađeno u kanal za pomoć poplavama koji teče direktno u Lea. Od začepljenja rijeke Vodovoda, potok je također preusmjeren na Lea. Lea je u 16. stoljeću očito još uvijek imala plimu do Lockbridgea. (fusnota 28)

Paleolitski alati i fosilne kosti pronađene duž šljunčanih terasa pokazuju da je rani čovjek živio i lovio u Leytonu. (fusnota 29) Južno od Blind Lanea postojalo je rimsko groblje, a masivni temelji neke rimske građevine, s količinom rimske opeke, otkriveni su na zemljištu Leyton Grange. (fn. 30) Visoki kamen, blizu istočne granice župe na križanju puteva od Woodforda i Woodford Bridgea, obnovljeni je obelisk iz 18. stoljeća postavljen na ranijem panju, ali se tradicionalno opisuje kao rimska prekretnica . Može zauzeti mjesto jednog, ako se rimski put od Dunmowa do Chigwella nastavio do Londona, prelazeći Lea kamenim nasipima otkrivenim u Leytonu između Temple Mills -a i Marsh Lane -a. (fn. 31) Tradicija takođe objašnjava da je Leytonstone dio Leytona koji se nalazio u blizini Visokog kamena. (fusnota 32)

Godine 1086. zabilježeno je 43 stanovnika. (Fusnota 33) Srednjovjekovno stanovništvo ostalo je malo. Godine 1523–4 samo je 49 osoba, uključujući 18 radnika i 10 slugu, dobilo subvenciju. (fusnota 34) 1670. godine u župi je bilo 83 kuće, od toga 23 u Leytonstoneu. (fusnota 35) Do 1778. godine govorilo se da ih je bilo više od 300. (fn. 36) 1801. godine broj stanovnika je iznosio 2.519. (fusnota 37) Osim povećanja između 1841. i 1851. uzrokovanog podizanjem Unije, nije bilo neobičnog rasta sve do 1860 -ih, kada se stanovništvo udvostručilo, sa 4.794 1861. na 10.394 1871. Do 1881. poraslo je do 23.016 u građanskoj župi i do 27.068 u novoj sanitarnoj gradskoj četvrti, koja je uključivala Walthamstow i Wanstead slips. Između 1881. i 1891. stanovništvo okruga poraslo je za 133,3 posto, na 63.056, što je veći proporcionalni porast nego u bilo kojem drugom engleskom gradu s preko 50.000 stanovnika. (fusnota 38) Brzi rast nastavio se do 1911. godine, kada je brojka bila 124.735, dostigavši ​​vrhunac u sljedećih nekoliko godina. 1921. godine zabilježeno je 128.430. Od 1931. (128.313) broj stanovnika je opao, na 105.978 u 1951. i 93.959 u 1961. godini.

Dokazi o Domesdayu pokazuju da se naselje 1086. godine uglavnom nalazilo u središtu i južno od Leytona, s najgušćom šumom na sjeveroistoku. (fusnota 39) Stvaranje imanja Haliwell priory 1201. godine vjerojatno je potaknulo naselje istočnije u 'Ladune' (Hollywell, kasnije Holloway Down), dok je do početka 14. stoljeća zaselak postojao u 'Leyton atte Stone'. (fusnota 40) U kasnijem srednjem vijeku, kako se šuma čistila na sjeveroistoku župe, naselje se razvilo na Knotts Greenu i Diggons Crossu, oboje se spominju 1537. (fn 41) Knotts Green je vjerojatno izvorno sadržavao otpad između Leyton High Road i njegove desne račve prema šumi (Leyton Green Road). Diggons Cross je vjerovatno bio blizu spoja Shernhall Street (Walthamstow) i autoputa prema šumi, jer je 1454. Degonesbraches (Diggonova 'čistina') nasrnuo na sjever na ovom autoputu, kraj Leytonovog mosta. (fusnota 42)

Do 18. stoljeća, kada je župa prvi put prikazana na detaljnim kartama, (fusnona 43) Wallwood i Whitings Grove su očišćeni, a obrazac župe, koliko je ostao do sredine 19. stoljeća, bio je potpun. Na zapadu je ležalo nerazvijeno močvarno područje, a na krajnjem sjeveroistoku Leyton vrište i šuma, opsjednuti autocestama. (fusnota 44) Dvije glavne ceste, sada Leyton High Road i Leytonstone High Road, vodile su otprilike sjeverno i južno kroz župu. Uz njih su ležala dva glavna naselja, Low Leyton na zapadu i Leytonstone na istoku. U Low Leytonu, otprilike četvrt milje zapadno od glavne ceste, stajala je župna crkva sa dvorcem Leyton Grangea pored nje. Visoki put, sa lokalnim putevima koji se odvajaju od njega, bio je nastavak južno od Hoe Street (Walthamstow), preko Knotts Green i Ruckholts do Angel Lane, Stratford. Do 18. stoljeća većina Knotts Green -a je bila uključena, formirajući trokut koji je danas omeđen High Roadom, Lea Bridge Roadom i Leyton Green Roadom. No, njegov sjeveroistočni ugao i dalje je bio otpad, a Knights Green (sada Leyton Green) na južnom vrhu vjerojatno je bio i ostatak izvorne zelene boje. Selo Low Leyton ležalo je uglavnom uz Leyton Street, jer je glavni put obično bio poznat od Lea Bridge Road -a do Moyers Lanea, najprometniji dio, između Lea Bridge Road -a i Knights Green -a, ponekad se nazivao Gossups Green. (fn. 45) Frog Row, ostrvo koliba, suzilo je glavni put na svom spoju sa Forest (kasnije James) Lane. Južnije grupa kuća, kasnije nazvana Plavi red, grupirala se nasuprot namjesništva i velikog trokuta otpada gdje se put granao na zapad do crkve (Church Road). Kvart južno od Blue Rowa, gdje je put išao prema Phillebrooku, obično je bio poznat kao Phillebrook. Nekoliko traka vodilo je istočno od glavne ceste. Wide Street, koji se spominje 1537. (fn. 46) kasnije nazvan i Wild Street, išao je sjevernom stranom Knotts Green -a, zatim se nastavio kao Broad Lane (kasnije Kestenova šetnja) do Whipps Crossa: oba su sada dio Lea Bridge Road -a . Broad Lane postojao je 1454. godine, a ime je dobio 1649. (fusnota 47) Opisano je kao 'šetnja drvećem' 1726. godine, a kestenje, posađeno prije 1814. godine i posječeno 1930 -ih godina, obilježeno je kestenovim drvetom javna kuća. (fn. 48) Traka (Leyton Green Road) povezivala je Knights Green s Chestnut Walkom. Forest (ili James) Lane vodio je od Žabljeg reda do Buryfielda (spominje se oko 1484.) (fusnota 49) i Forest Housea. Oko 1968. djelomično je preimenovan u Fletcher Lane, u spomen na Mary Fletcher. Moyers ili Wallwood Lane, ranije poznat kao Masters Lane (fn. 50) (sada Hainault Road), vodio je do Wallwooda i obližnjeg lokaliteta zvanog Geylewere, koji se prvi put spominje 1449. i ponavlja u različitim oblicima do 1867. (fn. 51) ime je možda nastalo kao mjesto za vješanje. Zapadno od Knotts Green Butterfield Lane (Welstret 1537. i 1645., ali se ponekad naziva i Wide ili Wild Street, a sada dio Lea Bridge Road) (fn. 52) vodilo je do Markhouse Lanea, koji je bio na putu od Higham Hill, Walthamstow, do crkve Leyton i glavne ceste. Od ovog spoja Hemstall Lane, koji se spominje 1601. i opisuje 1630. kao traka za potjeru, nastavlja prema zapadu do Hemstall ili Hemstead Green, gdje je most prelazio potok Dagenham. (fn. 53) Zeleni ostaci ostali su 1777. godine s obje strane nove ceste Lea Bridge koja je prelazila nju, a njeni dijelovi se mogu pratiti na desetinskoj karti. (fusnota 54) Farma Hughes, koja se ponekad naziva i farma Hemstall Green, (fn. 55) ležala je južno od trake. Od Markhouse Lane Church Lane (sada cesta) vodio je južno i istočno do glavne ceste. Ulica Capworth (ranije Capport) povezala je Church Lane i Knights Green, a drugi oblik, Copper Street, može ukazivati ​​na povezanost s Copping Downom koji se nalazio južno od njega. Južno od Phillebrooka dvije ceste su vodile s glavnog puta prema Temple Mills, jedna kroz Ruckholts, druga, Temple Mills Lane, na granici župe.

Leytonstone High Road, na istočnoj strani župe, bio je dio glavnog autoputa od Eppinga do Londona. Napustio je šumu u gostionici Green Man (spominje se 1668.) i trčao prema jugu do Saulsa (kasnije Harrow) Green, Holloway Down i Stratford. Od Green Man Phipps Cross Lane (Whipps Cross Road), koji se spominje 1492. godine, (fusnota 56) povezivao je Leytonstone s Whipps Crossom. Iza Zelenog čovjeka nalazila se neukusna grupa hrpica zvana Jaslica (fn. 57), a južno od nje Back Lane (Browning Road) vodila je istočno od glavnog puta do šume. Kuće zaseoka Leytonstone su se prostirale južno od Zelenog čovjeka. Na zapadnoj strani magistrale od sredine 18. stoljeća postojala je laka kapela do župne crkve. Još je kuća bilo ograđeno Sauls Green -om južnije i skupljeno na spoju s Hollewell Lane -om. Od gornjeg Leytonstone-a cesta (Church Lane i Grove Green Road) uvijala se jugozapadno preko župe do Grove Green-a, zatim do Ruckholt-a i Temple Mills-a. (fusnota 58) Knaves Lane (Cathall Road) povezao je Sauls Green i Grove Green. 'Sales' Green se spominje 1577. (fusnota 59), a Grove Green 1571. (fn. 60) Hollewell ili Blind Lane (kasnije Union, sada Langthorne Road) povezivali su Holloway Down i Leyton High Road. Tinkers Lane (ili Withies, od osira koji graniče s jarkom Wanstead) (fn. 61) vodio je istočno od Sauls Greena do Woodhousea, a donja šuma (sada Wanstead Flats) sada je poznata kao Harrow Road. Dalje na sjever kratka cesta (Davies Lane) također je vodila od glavne ceste do donje šume.

Leytonstone High Road, kao karika na relaciji London-Epping, bio je 1594. važniji od Leyton High Road. (fusnota 62) U 17. stoljeću stanovnici su u nekoliko navrata bili predstavljeni na četvrtim zasjedanjima jer ih nisu popravljali. (fusnota 63) 1721. godine preuzela ju je tračnica okretnica Middlesex i Essex, koja ju je zadržala do 1866. (fn. 64) Obje velike ceste prevozile su tržna kola i vagone. (fusnota 65) Put kroz Leytonstone također je prevozio međugradske autobuske prijevoze (fn. 66), a 1686. godine tamo je bilo 17 kreveta za goste i staje za 57 konja. (fusnota 67)

Pešački i konjski promet prešao je Lea do Hackneya, Lockbridgeom i susjednim fordom do Claptona, te Temple Mills do Homertona i Hackney Wicka. Lockbridge se spominje 1486–7. (fusnota 68) Izvješteno je 1551. godine da je pokvareno i da bi lord Wentworth, gospodar vlastelinstva Hackney, trebao to popraviti dovoljno za pješački promet. (fusnota 69) Norden ga je 1594. uvrstio među najkorisnije mostove u Middlesexu, (fn. 70), ali se konačno srušio između 1612. i 1630., a zamijenio ga je trajekt kasnije poznat kao Hackney ili Jeremyjev trajekt. (fusnota 71) Brid se još uvijek zvao Lockbridge 1646. (fn. 72) Prije nego što se Lockbridge srušio, drveni nasip od 12 pješačkih mostova vodio je od Blackbridgea, koji je prelazio kanalizaciju Shortlands zapadno od Hemstall Green, preko močvare do Lockbridgea. U 16. stoljeću ovaj je nasip izgradio ili popravio George Monoux (umro 1544.), a popravila ga je Lady Laxton, vjerojatno oko 1580. godine, kada je prijavljeno u ruševinama. Učinili su to "u dobrotvorne svrhe", nemajući sami zemlje u Leytonu. (fusnota 73) Kada su mostovi ponovno opasno propadali 1611-13, županija se odriče odgovornosti za njih, a do 1694. godine ostale su samo ruševine, koje su još bile vidljive u 19. stoljeću. (fusnota 74) Jeremyjev trajekt, i drugi manji, nazvan Smithov trajekt, malo sjevernije, prikazani su na kartama 1747–8. (fusnota 75) Budući da su oba, sa susjednim zemljištem, pripadali gospodaru vlastelinstva Hackney, (fn. 76) Lockbridge i trajekti vjerovatno su porijeklo dijela Hackneya koji se nalazi na istočnoj strani rijeke iznad mosta Lea do danas. Karte prikazuju dvije trase do Jeremyjevog trajekta. Jedan, Water Lane, koji vodi južno od Marsh Streeta, Walthamstow, kojem se putem pridružila još jedna traka iz Low Halla. Water Lane je prešao Walthamstow Marsh, koji je dijelom ležao u ostacima župe Leyton, a ostaci su ostali u 19. stoljeću. (fusnota 77) Od Leytona staza je vodila sjeverozapadno od dna Marsh Lanea preko Leyton Marsha. Hemstall Green ne prikazuje put do trajekta. Možda je rizik od utapanja, u kombinaciji s iznuđivačkim optužbama trajekta, preusmjerio put Stratforda putnike iz drugih župa i okruga koji su putovali na taj način. (fusnota 78) Prema Zakonu o okretnici Lea Bridge, 1757, obnovljena je stara ruta Hemstall Green -a i Blackbridge -a, kako bi se Clapton povezao s okretnicom Middlesex i Essex kod ribnjaka Eagle. Jeremyjev trajekt je zatvoren, a obližnji Ford uništen. Lea Bridge was built, with a road across the marsh by Hemstall Green to Markhouse Lane and Butterfield Lane and Broad Lane were widened. (fn. 79) In 1802 Leyton and Hackney settled their boundaries in relation to Lea Bridge, the land and buildings just above the bridge on the Leyton side remaining in Hackney, but the centre of the river forming the boundary from the upper side of the bridge southwards, leaving the Horse and Groom to Leyton. (fn. 80) The bridge was replaced in 1821 by an iron one. (fn. 81) On cessation of the turnpike trusts in 1871 the Essex half of the bridge was adopted by the county. (fusnota 82)

There was a less important crossing to Hackney at Temple Mills where a 'common open way for horses' existed in the 1690s. (fn. 83) The bridge over the mill-stream was maintained by the occupants of the mills. (fn. 84) In the present century better communications between South Hackney and Leyton became necessary. (fn. 85) In 1908 the Leyton U.D.C. and Essex county council completed a broad road from Ruckholt Road railway bridge to the Waterworks river, and in 1912 the London county council completed a bridge over the river to meet it. (fn. 86) This bridge, which was vested in the two authorities, became part of the scheme, first recommended in 1915, for an Eastern Avenue leading out of London through Leyton. (fn. 87) The bridge was demolished soon after 1952, when the Waterworks river was filled in and replaced by a roadway. (fn. 88) Plans still existed, however, in 1965 to build an Eastern Avenue extension through Leyton linking Eastway (Hackney) and Ruckholt Road with Cambridge Park. (fusnota 89)

Leyton Bridge, mentioned in 1454, crossed the Phillebrook in Broad Lane. It is not mentioned after 1698. (fn. 90) Marks Bridge crossed the Dagenham brook west of Mark House. (fn. 91)

Road development after 1850 took place within the framework of the ancient road system. The only important new thoroughfare was Francis Road, leading from Leyton High Road to Grove Green Road. (fn. 92) By the 1960s the existing main roads in Leyton were carrying heavy through traffic north-eastwards from London. Improved road junctions had been constructed at Whipps Cross, the Green Man, and Ruckholt Road, but congestion was often severe in the built-up shopping streets, particularly in Leytonstone High Road.

No very ancient building survives in Leyton, and there are no structural remains of the medieval parish church. Moyer House and Cross House, both in Leyton village, may have been medieval but were pulled down early in the 19th century. There was a pre-Dissolution Ruckholt Hall, but in the late 16th century it was replaced by a new one, which was demolished in its turn in the 18th century. The vicarage standing in 1537 was in ruins by 1650. The grange or manor house of Leyton which existed in the 1470s had probably disappeared by the late 1640s. Knotts, and the house at Diggons Cross in 1537, (fn. 93) were both replaced in the 18th century or earlier. Godsalves, occupied about 1547 by Sir John Godsalf, (fn. 94) was a large quadrangular building surrounded by a high wall and moat. By the 18th century it was derelict, its materials robbed to build other houses. One of these was probably the Bowling Green mentioned in 1658. This occupied part of the site before it was inherited about 1756 by Edward Rowe Mores the antiquary and printer who built on it the house in Church Road now known as Etloe House. (fn. 95) Leyton's oldest surviving building, the present Essex Hall, is structurally of the 16th century. (fn. 96) The first Forest House, built between 1537 and 1579, stood little more than 100 years. A Rose inn in Leytonstone is mentioned in 1585. (fn. 97)

No secular building which is known to date from the 17th century has survived in Leyton. Among buildings erected in the later part of the century were a new vicarage, the alms-houses next to the church, and a new Forest House. Lea Hall in Capworth Street, built in 1626, was occupied by Sir Richard Hopkins (d. 1735) and by the Quaker Joseph Hunton, who was hanged for forgery in 1828. It later became a girls school and was a branch of the county lunatic asylum in 1894 shortly before it was pulled down. (fn. 98) Drawings of the garden front suggest that it had been rebuilt or remodelled in the 18th century. (fn. 99) Ive Farm, south of Etloe House, was a two-storeyed brick house, probably built late in the 17th century. It survived, much altered, but retaining its original staircase, to the 1940s. (fn. 100) The Ferry House inn mentioned in 1702 and described as ancient in 1757 probably dated from the collapse of Lockbridge in the earlier 17th century. Later known as the Horse and Groom it was demolished in the 1850s when the waterworks filter beds were built. (fn. 101) Other inns named in the 17th century were the Harrow (1651), Green Man (1668), and Robin Hood (1670), all in Leytonstone. The Robin Hood became the Red Lion by 1766. The Three Blackbirds, Leyton, existed by 1705. (fn. 102) All these have been rebuilt, together with the Bell and the Lion and Key, both mentioned in the 18th century. (fn. 103) The house in Leytonstone High Road called Andrews (fn. 104) became known as Royal Lodge after 1821, when it ceased to be occupied as a school. It was burned down in 1878, rebuilt, and converted into the Rex cinema about 1928. The original Assembly House in Whipps Cross Road, in which London merchants were said to have transacted their business during the plague of 1665, was demolished about 1840 and replaced by a tall redbrick building. (fn. 105)

After the Restoration Leyton became increasingly a 'pretty retiring place from London' for wealthy merchants, bankers, and professional men. (fn. 106) They built fine houses or rebuilt existing ones, and established large households, including the 'blackamoor' servants whose births and burials are entered in the parish registers from 1667 to 1778. (fn. 107) In 1670 of the 83 houses in the parish 19 had 8 or more hearths. (fn. 108) By 1766 some 50 to 60 gentlemen's families were said to be living in the parish. (fn. 109) They included men of intellect and taste, such as the printers William Bowyer the elder (d. 1737) and his son, William (d. 1777), and David Lewis (d. 1760) the poet, and friend of Alexander Pope. (fn. 110)

Most of the large residences were situated on the higher ground in the centre and north of the parish with a particular concentration in Low Leyton village. They stood, often in extensive grounds, at Knotts Green and in High Road, Church Lane, and Capworth Street. At least eight houses in this area were connected at one time with substantial estates, including the manor of Leyton, and are therefore described in another section (fn. 111) of these buildings only Essex Hall and Grove House were still standing in 1970. The only other surviving house of any size is Etloe House in Church Road, which was built c. 1760. At the rear of its three-storeyed central block are sash windows and two full-height bays of the original date. The house was evidently enlarged by the addition of two flanking wings in the early or mid 19th century, perhaps as late as 1856 when Cardinal Wiseman moved there at the same time the front was remodelled in a Tudor style with mullioned windows, embattled parapets, and a porch with Gothic arches. Two turrets with crocketed finials may have been part of the original house which, in 1796, was known as Etloe Place and described as 'whimsical'. (fn. 112) Also in Church Road was Leyton House, which disappeared c. 1910. It was built about 1706 by David Gansel and the elaborate layout of its grounds is shown on Rocque's map. It was a three-storeyed red-brick building with a front of seven bays and a scrolled pediment to the central doorway. The front faced a walled forecourt with entrance gates on the east and two flanking stable blocks. The site is now occupied by the London Electric Wire Works. (fn. 113) Other demolished houses in the area which were largely of 18th-century date were Suffolk House in Capworth Street, and Chingford Hall, Salway House, and Leyton Park (formerly Phillebrook House), all in High Road. In Leyton Green Road were the White House, demolished before the Second World War, and Cedar Lawn, which survived into the 1960s. (fn. 114) No. 669 High Road, a smaller village house, was still standing in 1970 built in the later 18th century it has three ogee-headed 'Gothick' windows to the first floor and a pedimented doorcase between Victorian bay-windows.

Forest House and Wallwood House stood at the edge of the forest on or near the sites of more ancient buildings. Both belonged to large estates and are described elsewhere. (fn. 115) In the 18th century the scenic attractions of the forest led to the building of new residences in this part of the parish. In the extreme north-east corner was the house, later known as Forest Edge or Buxton House, in which Isaac Buxton died in 1782 it had probably been built by his father-in-law, Thomas Fowell. Sir Edward North Buxton lived there in 1840–7. It was demolished shortly before 1939 and blocks of flats have been built on the former garden. (fn. 116) Near by, in a road now called The Forest, two smaller houses of 18th century origin, Marryats Lodge and Gwydir Lodge, are still standing, together with two early 19th-century terrace houses. On the south side of Whipps Cross Road, also overlooking forest land, a row of about twelve middle-class dwellings was built in 1767. (fn. 117) It was known as Assembly Row from the Assembly House at one end of it, and later as Forest Place. Six of the houses (nos. 133, 135, 139, 143, 153, and 155 Whipps Cross Road) survived in an altered form in 1968. They were originally twoand three-storeyed structures of brown brick, some terraced and some detached. They had mansard roofs, dormers, sash windows, pedimented doorways and, in a few cases, two-storeyed projecting bays.

Leytonstone contained fewer large residences than Leyton. One of the earliest was The Pastures in Davies Lane, the larger of Mary Bosanquet's two houses. It was built by Daniel van Mildert about 1686–7 but was remodelled and refaced in the 18th century. It contained staircases of both dates. After bombing in the Second World War it stood derelict until its demolition in the 1960s. The Pastures youth centre now occupies the site. (fn. 118) Park House, in Leytonstone High Road, was used as a branch library from 1908 until it was pulled down in 1934. It was a square three-storeyed building of the early 18th century with rusticated quoins, a modillion eaves-cornice, and a hipped roof. The central doorway had an open segmental pediment with the arms of Parry-Segar in the tympanum. (fn. 119) The elevation to Granleigh Road, which had been given a veranda and a balcony in the earlier 19th century, became the principal entrance front after the railway was constructed near by. Among other 18th-century houses which have now vanished were Dyers Hall, built on a small estate devised to the Dyers Company in 1739 for charitable purposes, (fn. 120) and Leyspring House, burnt down about 1870. (fn. 121) Norlington House was in High Road and Bushwood House stood by the pond near the Green Man. At the north end of High Road, however, a few buildings have survived from the former hamlet. Leytonstone House, now part of a mental hospital, was built c. 1800 and was the home of Thomas Fowell Buxton in 1857. The three-storeyed central block of five bays, which has a modillion cornice and a Doric portico, is flanked by two-storeyed wings like so many Georgian houses in the area, it has fullheight bay-windows at the rear. (fn. 122) To the south a smaller and much altered house of c. 1700 stands at right angles to the road. Farther south again were the grounds of Sycamore House, an 18th-century building with later extensions it was demolished in 1958 (fn. 123) when the Presbyterian Church of Wales was built on the site. On the opposite side of High Road, behind the Green Man, several irregular groups of early-19th-century cottages have survived in Browning Road. Facing High Road was a terrace of three red-brick 18th-century houses with shops built over their front gardens. One, in which Sir Morell Mackenzie was born in 1837, is still standing. Farther south a later and more imposing threestoreyed terrace also has its frontage concealed by modern shops. It consists of three houses, each of five bays, with ground floors of rusticated stucco and central Doric porches.

WALTHAMSTOW (SOUTH), LEYTON, AND WANSTEAD, 1965

A few surviving buildings in the parish date from the period immediately before its rapid mid-19th-century development, including St. John's church, Leytonstone (1833). A typical smaller residence, standing in its own garden, is Gainsborough Lodge in Leytonstone High Road. There are also small houses and cottages in Church Road, Leyton, and near the north-east end of Lea Bridge Road (formerly Chestnut Walk). The main front of the massive West Ham Union workhouse (now Langthorne hospital), built in 1840, (fn. 124) has stone dressings and is surmounted by a balustraded parapet with twin classical urns. In Lea Bridge Road the London Master Bakers' benevolent institution stands round three sides of a court, the fourth side open to the street and bounded by railings with wrought iron gates. It was designed in an elaborate Italianate style by T. E. Knightley and built in stages between 1857 and 1866. (fn. 125) The two-storeyed ranges are of grey brick with stone dressings and contain 52 alms-houses, known as 'villas'. Architectural features include two square turrets at the angles between the ranges, small low-pitched gables, and rows of projecting porches.

Leyton and Leytonstone remained rural until the mid 19th century. (fn. 126) Then came the opening of railways to London with stations at Lea Bridge (1840), Low Leyton and Leytonstone (1856), followed by the provision of other forms of cheap and speedy transport. This coincided with the expansion of opportunities for employment in offices, in industry, and in public undertakings, particularly railways, in London and in neighbouring districts, such as West Ham. The effect was to transform two villages by the end of the 19th century into a suburban dormitory for clerks and workmen mostly employed outside the area. (fn. 127) In contrast, however, to the spread of building over most of the parish, the forest land in the extreme north-east remained largely untouched. Its survival was ensured by the Epping Forest Act of 1878 by which over 200 acres in Leyton were preserved for public use. (fn. 128) This area, with its established trees, ponds, glades, and open spaces, provided ample opportunities for outdoor recreation.

Development began in the district nearest to Lea Bridge station, and included Park Place in Church Road, and an estate laid out by the Freehold Land Society comprising Park, Grange, Shaftesbury, and Carlisle Roads, on which all plots were sold by 1853, and houses built and occupied by 1857. (fn. 129) In 1860 the Grange Park estate was sold to the British Land Co. (fn. 130) comprising roughly the rest of the district bounded by Park, Church, Vicarage, and Thornhill Roads. By 1867 Holloway Down was being laid out and the better-class district between Mornington Road and Leytonstone High Road. (fn. 131) Some of the early Holloway Down development, near the union workhouse and West Ham boundary, was of low standard, soon overcrowded, and insanitary (fn. 132) the worst was demolished by the borough council in the 1960s. In the 1870s building was in progress on the Fillebrook (Wallwood farm) estate, bounded by Hainault, Fairlop, Colworth, and Fillebrook Roads, and on the Leyspring estate also, farther south, on the Leyton Park and Phillebrook farm estates, north of the railway line, and in the Cann Hall district, which was almost entirely built over by 1895. The Cowley (Ruckholt manor) estate was sold off piecemeal from the late 1860s, including land in Grove Green Lane and 31 a. between Leyton railway station and Stratford sold in 1878–81. (fn. 133) Building accelerated on established schemes in the 1880s, and spread as the Great House estate, with 50 a. between Francis Road and Norlington Road, and the Leyton Manor estate (Palamos, Malta, and Waterloo Roads), came on the market. Development of the Wallwood Park estate, bounded by Colworth Road, Forest Glade, and the railway line, slow in the 1880s was completed in the next decade. In the 1890s most of the remaining estates were sold, including Dyers Hall, Lea Hall, (fn. 134) The Poplars, Moyer, and the Bourne nursery ground. In 1898 the Barclay Park sale made available another 100 a. Among the last developments, in the early 1900s, were the Forest Lodge (fn. 135) and Etloe House estates, the Warner estate west of Markhouse Road, and the site of the Great House itself (1905). In 1912 only 250 a. of undeveloped building land remained, mainly represented by the Barclay Park estate and Fraser's Lea Bridge nursery ground. These remained undeveloped until the 1920s. (fn. 136)

Beyond the fringe of all this speculative development a bungalow town of 69 shacks, with wells and earth closets, and a wooden mission church, sprang up in the 1880s at Lea Bridge Gardens, west of Lea Bridge station. (fn. 137) The occupants reared ducks and grew vegetables. These buildings were demolished in the 1930s and the site is now mainly industrial.

By 1903 little remained apart from the forest to recall 'leafy Leyton's' former character, though the district council tried to restore it by mobilizing the unemployed to plant thousands of trees in the new streets in 1909–11. (fn. 138) Only the council's recreation grounds, and the Drapers Ground, a disused brickfield laid out in 1894 as a playing field for their school by the Drapers Company, relieved the prevailing monotony of brick. (fusnota 139)

Once speculative development had begun, Leyton ceased to attract wealthy residents in search of rural seclusion. As a result there are no Victorian or Edwardian mansions in the area. The new houses were mainly yellow-brick two-storey terraces and villas, ranged in rows, their bow-windows and doorways freely ornamented with mass-produced cement foliage and tracery. The elaboration of the Red Lion inn and shops, designed by W. D. Church in 1890, (fn. 140) exemplifies on a larger scale the ornate features popular with the terrace builders. Retail shops, which became increasingly necessary for the growing population, were almost entirely confined to the main thoroughfares, long stretches of which were built up as shopping streets in the later 19th century. The new frontages were of two or three storeys with shops on the ground floor and living accommodation for their owners above. Later, as demand grew, residential terraces were brought into use, shops being built over their small front gardens. Public buildings dating from this period include the first town hall (1882), of yellow brick, with a corner clock-tower, now a library, and the present town hall (1896), designed by J. Johnson. This vivid red-brick building, with Portland stone bands and dressings, was said to be in the 'English Renaissance' style. (fn. 141) Whipps Cross hospital, then the Union infirmary, was completed in 1903. The Carnegie Library in Lea Bridge Road (1906), and girls high school in Colworth Road (1911) were designed by W. Jacques. The most striking churches built at this time were All Saints, Capworth Street (1864), the Mary Fletcher Memorial Methodist church (1877), St. Andrew's, Forest Glade (1887), Gainsborough Bridge Primitive Methodist church (1902), and St. George's Presbyterian church (1893), Hainault Road.

During the First World War about 1,300 houses were damaged by bombing during airship raids in 1915–16. (fn. 142) Though there was little building between the two wars, notable new buildings included Leyton high school for boys in Essex Road (1929), Connaught Road school (1932), the High Road baths (1934), Emmanuel church (1934–5), and the Christian Science church (1937). During the Second World War hardly a house in Leyton escaped damage. (fn. 143) After 1945 municipal redevelopment began on vacant and cleared sites. (fn. 144) First schemes provided houses and bungalows of conventional design, such as those in the Borthwick Road and Ellingham Road area, or three- and four-storey blocks of flats such as Beaumont House (1947), Mills Court (1950), and Thornhill Gardens (1955). Villiers Close (1957) represented a new approach, grouping varied blocks in one development. The eleven-storey Slade Tower, completed in 1961 as part of the Leyton Grange development, was the first outcome of the council's new decision to build upward at higher population densities. The Slade Tower was followed by others, which now dominate the surrounding streets to a height of up to 17 storeys. The Beaumont Road development, under construction in 1965, comprised 444 dwellings in mixed blocks, including bungalows, grouped around the multi-storey All Saints Tower.

Public buildings completed after 1945 include the Harrow Green branch library, George Tomlinson primary school, and Ruckholt Manor school. The only modern church of note is the Welsh Presbyterian church in Leytonstone High Road.

In 1693 the parish was subsidizing a local stage coach. (fn. 145) In 1707 a stage coach service linked Leyton and Walthamstow. (fn. 146) By the late 18th century several coaches a day passed through the parish. (fn. 147) In 1839 five coaches ran daily to London from Leyton, and the Wanstead, Epping, Harlow, and Clare coaches stopped at Leytonstone. (fn. 148) The Northern and Eastern railway line from Stratford to Broxbourne opened in 1840 with a station at Lea Bridge, (fn. 149) and the Eastern Counties (later Great Eastern) branch line from Stratford to Loughton with stations at Leyton and Leytonstone in 1856. (fn. 150) The Midland railway's Tottenham and Forest Gate branch, crossing the parish from north-west to south-east, with stations in Leyton and Leytonstone was opened in 1894. (fn. 151) In 1947 the line from Stratford through Leytonstone to Woodford was electrified, as an extension of the Central London line. (fn. 152)

The North Metropolitan Tramways Co. in 1874 built tramcar construction works in Union Road, connected with the company's system at Stratford by a short length of horse tramway in Leytonstone High Road. (fn. 153) This was extended to the Green Man in 1878. The company used this route to experiment, in 1877 with the Merryweather steam tram, in 1881 with a car driven by the Beaumont compressed air engine, and in 1882 with an electric tram run on a battery. (fusnota 154)

The Lea Bridge, Leyton and Walthamstow Tramways, incorporated in 1881, opened a single-line horse tram service along Lea Bridge Road in 1883. (fn. 155) Though the promoters failed in 1885, the undertaking was bought in 1888 by a new Lea Bridge, Leyton and Walthamstow Tramways Co., incorporated in 1889, and empowered to operate also down Leyton High Road to the railway station. By 1890 trams were operating from Lea Bridge to the Rising Sun in Woodford New Road, and from the Bakers Arms to the Great Eastern railway station. (fn. 156) Under powers obtained in 1898 and amplified in 1904 (fn. 157) the district council in 1905 took over the Lea Bridge company's undertaking, and in 1906 the portion in the district of the North Metropolitan company's, though not their tramcar works. The council's whole system was electrified in 1906–7. (fn. 158) In 1910 the council made joint arrangements with the L.C.C. and other authorities for through tram services, and from 1921 to 1933 their tramways were operated by the L.C.C. (fn. 159)

A horse bus service between Walthamstow and Stratford via Leyton High Road was introduced in 1889. (fn. 160) It was replaced in 1905 by a motor bus service, run from 1906 by the Great Eastern London Motor Omnibus Co. The company built a bus garage at Leyton Green in 1906, when a new service was started from the Bakers Arms to Oxford Circus via Lea Bridge Road. The London General Omnibus Co., which had also established motor bus routes between London and the Bakers Arms by 1908, took over the Great Eastern in 1911, and rebuilt and enlarged the Leyton Green depot in 1912. (fn. 161) In 1933 the buses and trams were taken over by the London Passenger Transport board. (fn. 162) Conversion of the tramways to trolley bus working was completed in 1939. (fn. 163) Since 1952 omnibuses have replaced trolley buses. (fn. 164)

In 1692 letters were collected and delivered at Low Leyton once daily by the London Penny Post's footpost. (fn. 165) By 1794 there was a receiving house with three daily deliveries, also a sorting office. (fn. 166) The Munn family, grocers in Leyton Street, were receivers continuously from before 1832 until about 1878. (fn. 167) In 1856 Leyton became a sub-office in the north eastern district, later merged with the eastern district. (fn. 168) The sub-office at Leyton Green in 1863 was known as the 'higher office'. (fn. 169) The sorting office at no. 713 High Road was established c. 1893 (fn. 170) in 1917 Leyton became the E.10 London delivery district. (fn. 171) As the number of sub-offices increased, to 11 by 1926, the Leyton Green office continued to be termed the 'higher office', (fn. 172) but there was no branch office until 1934 when the present one was built in Lea Bridge Road. (fn. 173) A telegraph service was available by 1870. (fn. 174) The National Telephone Co. extended their system to Leyton in 1892 (fn. 175) and had opened an exchange by 1906. (fn. 176) The district is now served by the Leytonstone exchange.

In Leytonstone letters were collected and delivered in 1692 once daily. (fn. 177) There was a receiving house by 1794. (fn. 178) In 1856 Leytonstone was assigned to the north eastern (later eastern) district. (fn. 179) There was still only one sub-office in 1870, but another had opened at Harrow Green by 1874. (fn. 180) About 1912 a branch office was opened at no. 801 High Road this remained the urban district's only branch office until 1934. (fn. 181) Soon after 1964 it was replaced by an office at no. 783 High Road. (fn. 182) Since about 1939 there has also been a branch office in Cathall Road, Harrow Green. (fn. 183) A sorting office, established in Church Lane in 1883, (fn. 184) moved to its present site in Fillebrook Road about 1912. (fn. 185) In 1917 Leytonstone became the E.11 delivery area. (fn. 186) Telegraph facilities were available by 1870. (fn. 187) The National Telephone Co. opened the Leytonstone exchange in 1908 (fn. 188) it was taken over by the G.P.O. in 1912. (fn. 189)

Leyton has been the birthplace or home of many notable persons. Some are mentioned in the sections which follow others are listed in another volume. (fn. 190) Lady Margaret Bryan, governess to the children of Henry VIII, died at Leyton. (fn. 191) Thomas Lodge, (d. 1625) a leading physician, lived there (fn. 192) and Sir Morrell Mackenzie (d. 1892), the throat specialist, was born at Leytonstone, where his father, Stephen, practised as a surgeon. (fn. 193) The poet and dramatist John Drinkwater (d. 1937) was born in Leytonstone. (fn. 194) Among the more unusual of Leyton's worthies was John Henry Pepper (d. 1900), the illusionist, exhibitor of 'Pepper's Ghost'. Thomas Bowdler (d. 1856), Shakespeare's expurgator, was curate at Leyton in 1803. William Cotton Oswell (grandson of Joseph Cotton), accompanied Livingstone in his search for the Great Lake, and was with him in 1851 when the Zambesi was sighted.

In the 19th century the Lea was popular for boating, fishing, and bathing several rowing clubs existed by 1880. (fn. 195) The Eastern Mercury, founded in 1887, paid special attention to sport, including football, cricket, cycling, and lacrosse. (fn. 196) Organized football was introduced in 1859, when the Forest Association football club was formed, playing its first games in Leytonstone on the forest adjoining Wanstead orphanage asylum. Among amateur clubs Leyton football club dates from 1868 and Leytonstone F.C. from 1886. The professional club, Clapton Orient, founded in 1881, moved to Leyton to the Brisbane Road stadium in 1936–7, and became known as Leyton Orient. (fn. 197) The Essex county cricket club in 1886 bought a permanent ground in Leyton High Road, where they played until it was sold in 1933. It is still a sports ground. Leyton cricket club, in existence by 1895, was by 1906 one of the strongest in Essex and a nursery for the county team. (fn. 198) In 1906–7 there were 20 cricket and football clubs in Leyton and in 1931 15 cricket clubs, over 20 football clubs, and a number of tennis, netball, swimming, athletics, cycling, motoring, and gymnastics clubs. (fn. 199) Since 1905 the Hollow pond, deepened by the unemployed, has been used for sailing model yachts, boating, and skating. (fusnota 200)

In 1806 a Women's Union society was meeting at the Red Lion. (fn. 201) By 1897 many societies existed, including masonic lodges, literary, camera, choral, orchestral, and phrenological societies. (fn. 202) They met in public houses, church halls, or schools, and, from 1896, in municipal halls, (fn. 203) of which there were six in 1965. (fn. 204) In 1955 there were over 50 societies in the district. (fn. 205) Three picture palaces were built in 1910–11. (fn. 206) One of Leytonstone's cinemas in 1917 was also a skating rink. (fn. 207) By 1932 there were eight cinemas one of these, the Rex, in Leytonstone High Road, was converted to a bowling alley about 1962. (fn. 208) A Leyton Eisteddfod was organized by the public library committee from 1924 to 1939. (fn. 209) In 1947 Leyton took the lead among London boroughs pressing for more extensive permissive powers for local authorities in the entertainment field these, as a result, became incorporated in the Local Government Act, 1948. (fn. 210)


Aftermath

The attack caught American military personnel by surprise and was certainly costly, but it did not cripple the U.S. Navy as the Japanese had anticipated. By a stroke of luck, the three American aircraft carriers stationed at Pearl Harbor were not there on the morning of December 7th. USS Lexington, the USS Enterprise, i USS Saratoga had been sent on missions during the days before. Aircraft carriers are larger and more difficult to build than other ships, and their survival would prove vital during the Pacific War.

President Roosevelt, wearing a black armband, signs the declaration of war against Japan on December 8, 1941

On December 8th, President Roosevelt gave a speech in which he famously called the attack on Pearl Harbor “a date which will live in infamy,” while Congress quickly passed a declaration of war on Japan. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. The War Department completely reorganized itself, as key positions shifted to various trusted officers in order to prepare for the new conflict.

Prior to Pearl Harbor, the United States had sent large amounts of financial aid and military equipment to the Allied cause. The Japanese attack launched the U.S. into a complete struggle against Axis powers and brought American soldiers into the war for the first time. It also united the country, as a Gallup poll conducted during the days after Pearl Harbor showed that 97% of Americans approved of the declaration of war.

Thousands of young men rushed to serve in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. A New York Times article from December 9th reported that the armed forces were “receiving applicants in numbers unprecedented in the history of the nation” and that “many of the men had been in line [at recruiting stations] the whole night.” The Times added the next day that the Army had received 2,684 applications in the two days since declaring war on Japan.

Pearl Harbor also had a marked effect on the Manhattan Project. The S-1 Committee, which ran atomic research prior to the creation of the Manhattan Project, formally held its first meeting on December 18, 1941. This meeting initiated an official shift from the research to the development phase of the project. As S-1 official James Conant noted, “The atmosphere was charged with excitement – the country had been at war nine days, an expansion of the S-1 program was now an accomplished matter. Enthusiasm and optimism reigned” (Rhodes 398).


A Brief History of Pi ( π )

Pi ( π ) has been known for almost 4000 years—but even if we calculated the number of seconds in those 4000 years and calculated π to that number of places, we would still only be approximating its actual value. Here’s a brief history of finding π .

The ancient Babylonians calculated the area of a circle by taking 3 times the square of its radius, which gave a value of pi = 3. One Babylonian tablet (ca. 1900–1680 BC) indicates a value of 3.125 for π , which is a closer approximation.

The Rhind Papyrus (ca.1650 BC) gives us insight into the mathematics of ancient Egypt. The Egyptians calculated the area of a circle by a formula that gave the approximate value of 3.1605 for π .

The first calculation of π was done by Archimedes of Syracuse (287–212 BC), one of the greatest mathematicians of the ancient world. Archimedes approximated the area of a circle by using the Pythagorean Theorem to find the areas of two regular polygons: the polygon inscribed within the circle and the polygon within which the circle was circumscribed. Since the actual area of the circle lies between the areas of the inscribed and circumscribed polygons, the areas of the polygons gave upper and lower bounds for the area of the circle. Archimedes knew that he had not found the value of π but only an approximation within those limits. In this way, Archimedes showed that π is between 3 1/7 and 3 10/71.

A similar approach was used by Zu Chongzhi (429–501), a brilliant Chinese mathematician and astronomer. Zu Chongzhi would not have been familiar with Archimedes’ method—but because his book has been lost, little is known of his work. He calculated the value of the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter to be 355/113. To compute this accuracy for π , he must have started with an inscribed regular 24,576-gon and performed lengthy calculations involving hundreds of square roots carried out to 9 decimal places.

Mathematicians began using the Greek letter π in the 1700s. Introduced by William Jones in 1706, use of the symbol was popularized by Leonhard Euler, who adopted it in 1737.

An eighteenth-century French mathematician named Georges Buffon devised a way to calculate π based on probability. You can try it yourself at the Exploratorium's Pi Toss exhibit.

Shown: Thomas Degeorge (1786–1854), The Death of Archimedes (detail), 1815. Collection of the Musée d’Art Roger-Quilliot Museum [MARQ], City of Clermont-Ferrand, France.


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Komentari:

  1. Cleary

    Smatram da ste napravili grešku.

  2. Pitney

    The props are coming out

  3. Percy

    Just a nightmare.///

  4. Wetherly

    Po mom mišljenju priznajete grešku. Pišite mi u premijeru, razgovaraćemo.

  5. Nun

    Kapets! we all use it



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