Završena kanadska transkontinentalna željeznica

Završena kanadska transkontinentalna željeznica

Na udaljenom mjestu zvanom Craigellachie u planinama Britanske Kolumbije, posljednji šiljak zabijen je u prvu kanadsku transkontinentalnu željeznicu.

1880. kanadska vlada je ugovorila kanadsku pacifičku željeznicu za izgradnju prve kanadske pruge do zapadne obale. U narednih pet godina kompanija je postavila 4.600 kilometara jedne pruge, ujedinivši različite manje linije širom Kanade. Uprkos logističkim poteškoćama koje predstavljaju područja poput regije muskeg (močvare) na sjeverozapadu Ontarija i visoke krševite planine Britanske Kolumbije, željeznica je završena šest godina prije roka.

Transkontinentalna željeznica bila je ključna u naseljavanju prostranih zapadnih zemalja Kanade, pružajući zalihe i trgovinu novim doseljenicima. Mnogi veliki gradovi i gradovi zapadne Kanade odrasli su oko kanadskih pacifičkih željezničkih postaja.


Kanadska pacifička željeznica

Ime najduže željeznice na svijetu može zbuniti. To je transkontinentalna, a ne željeznička pruga koja prolazi duž zapadne ili pacifičke obale Kanade. Rad je počeo 1880. godine, pod konzervativnom vladom koju je predvodio Sir John Macdonald. Kako bi uvjerio kapitaliste da ulože u njega, Macdonald je potencijalnim investitorima ponudio milijune hektara plodne obradive zemlje koja se proteže uz predložene tračnice. Ponudio je i subvencije i oslobađanje od poreza.

Jedna od Macdonaldovih glavobolja kao premijera druge najveće zemlje na svijetu bila je ta što je njen dio - Britanska Kolumbija - odbio pristupiti Kanadskoj federaciji 1871. godine sve dok nije dato obećanje o izgradnji transkontinentalne željeznice.

Stvarna izgradnja ove izvanredne pruge sama je po sebi bila inženjersko čudo: morala se podići na pretežno nenaseljenom teritoriju, na temperaturama većim od nule zimi su tuneli morali biti minirani ispod Stjenovitih planina, a mostovi su morali biti izgrađeni preko Kolumbije i druge široke i brze rijeke.

Kanadska pacifička željeznica dovršena je do 1885. godine, što je vrhunski podvig koordinacije, preduzetništva i inženjerskih vještina. Za samo pet godina pređen je kontinent. Željeznica je postigla neposredni politički i ekonomski značaj. Granična linija koja dijeli Kanadu od Sjedinjenih Država, nazvana 49. paralela, bila je neoznačena i nebranjena, kao što je oduvijek i bila. Nova željeznica išla je sjeverno od ove mistične granične linije kako bi se osiguralo da SAD ne prodru u to područje. Američki političari gladni zemlje morali su prihvatiti fait accompli.

Nakon što je linija pokrenuta, naseljavanje prerija postalo je moguće i poticanje imigracije. Trgovina i industrija u dolini St. Laurence proširili su se prema zapadu prema Pacifiku.

Već uspostavljeni mali gradovi na ruti, poput Winnipega, Calgaryja i Vancouvera, rasli su zapanjujućom brzinom. 1891. Rusija je započela vlastitu verziju, nazvanu Transsibirska željeznica, koja bi također imala izvanredan industrijski, ekonomski i društveni učinak na u osnovi zaostalu zemlju.


Izgradnja kanadske željeznice

Izgradnja transkontinentalne željeznice potaknula je rađanje Kanade, zapravo, cijela Sjeverna Amerika prolazila je kroz promjene u 19. stoljeću. Imigranti, posebno Evropljani, pristigli su da nasele zemlju. Svuda su nikli gradovi. S vlakovima se jednodnevno putovanje kopnom više nije mjerilo kilometrima, već desetinama i stotinama kilometara. Lokomotive su zamijenile konje, dok su treneri postupno ustupali mjesto automobilima i vagonima. Odjednom je sve postalo moguće.

Od 1600 -ih do ranih 1800 -ih

Stanovnici Nove Francuske putovali su brodom, saonicama i kalešeom. Putevi su bili neravni, blatnjavi i obično u vrlo lošem stanju. Zimi su se rijeke zaledile i stale na kraj plovidbi. Zajednice izolirane dubokim snijegom.

Prekretnice kanadske željeznice do 1978

Prekretnica u istoriji Kanade dogodila se 1836. godine, kada je prvi javni voz počeo voziti između Saint Jean sur Richelieu i La Prairie blizu Montreala. Događaj je pokrenuo izvanredan procvat u svim dimenzijama rasta Kanade. Vozovi su prevozili putnike i velike količine robe po cijelom kontinentu. Gradovi su rasli oko željezničkih stanica. Tvornice i industrije nastale su u gradovima poput Montreala, Toronta i Vancouvera. Kanada je bila užurbana!

Evo nekoliko prekretnica u istoriji kanadske željeznice, koje su kulminirale 1977. stvaranjem VIA Rail Canada.


Važne brojke u istoriji kanadskih željeznica


Kanadske željeznice započele su svoje historijsko putovanje prije 175 godina zahvaljujući viziji i odlučnosti poslovnih ljudi, političara, inženjera i željezničkih radnika u zemlji i inostranstvu. 1836. završena je prva željeznička pruga u zemlji na ukupnoj dužini od ne baš 24 kilometra. Do 1980 -ih, više od 95.000 kilometara staza prelazilo je Kanadu od okeana do okeana. Evo priča nekih od glavnih ličnosti koje su doprinijele razvoju željeznica u Kanadi.

Vizionarski premijeri

Sir John Alexander Macdonald

Rođen 1815. u Glasgowu, Škotska, umro 1891. u Ottawi, Ontario. Sir John A. Macdonald posebno je zapamćen po tome što je bio prvi kanadski premijer i otac Konfederacije 1867. Bio je premijer od 1867. do 1873. i ponovo od 1878. do 1891. godine.

Macdonald je željeznice vidio kao savršeno sredstvo za povezivanje zemlje i poticanje ekonomskog prosperiteta. Tijekom svog prvog mandata od 1867. do 1873. godine, inicirao je izgradnju Interkolonijalne željeznice koja povezuje grad Qubebec s Halifaxom. 1879. godine, nakon povratka na vlast, uveo je svoju nacionalnu politiku, koja je štitila proizvodni sektor uvođenjem visokih carina na uvezenu robu. Ova je strategija posebno usmjerena na Sjedinjene Države. Macdonald je također učinio sve što je u njegovoj moći da promovira izgradnju prve kanadske transkontinentalne željeznice prema kanadskom Pacifiku. Obećanje željeznica bilo je najmoćniji argument koji se koristio za poticanje teritorija da se pridruže Kanadskoj konfederaciji. Donje karte prikazuju glavne promjene u političkom okruženju Kanade između 1823. i 1905. godine.

Pogledajte karte iz kanadskog Atlasa i Kartu Kanade iz 1823. koje prikazuju teritorijalnu podjelu.

  • John A. Macdonald bio je otac Konfederacije.
  • Inicirao je izgradnju Interkolonijalne željeznice.
  • On je dao mandat kanadskom Pacifiku da izgradi prvu kanadsku transkontinentalnu željeznicu.

Rođen 1841. u Saint-Linu, Qubebec, umro 1919. u Ottawi, Ontario. Sir Wilfrid Laurier bio je premijer Kanade od 1896. do 1911. godine.

Ranih 1900 -ih, Laurierova vlada financirala je drugu transkontinentalnu željeznicu, čija je izgradnja povjerena Grand Trunk Pacific. Laurier će kasnije financirati treću transkontinentalnu liniju koju je izgradila kanadska sjeverna željeznica, u direktnoj konkurenciji s Grand Trunk Pacific. Upamćen je kao zagovornik kompromisa.

  • Wilfrid Laurier je odobrio izgradnju druge i treće kanadske transkontinentalne željeznice Grand Trunk Pacific i kanadske sjeverne željeznice.

Medijator

Otac Albert Lacombe

Rođen 1827. u Saint-Sulpiceu, Qubebec je umro 1916. u Calgaryju, Alberta.

Tri godine nakon što je 1849. postao svećenik s prstenovima, Albert Lacombe otišao je u Albertu živjeti među Cree i Mtis. Naučio je govoriti Cree, čak je napisao i rječnik i preveo Novi zavjet na Cree. 1883., starosjedioci nacije Blackfoot zaprijetili su da će blokirati izgradnju kanadske pacifičke željezničke pruge kroz njihovu rezervu. Otac Lacombe je pregovarao s njima u ime kanadskog Pacifika i Blackfoot se konačno složio da dozvoli nastavak radova. Kao izraz svoje zahvalnosti, tadašnji predsjednik kanadskog Pacifika dao je ocu Lacombeu doživotnu kartu za putovanje željeznicom i simbolično ga imenovao predsjednikom kompanije u trajanju od jednog sata.

  • Albert Lacombe je ohrabrio francuske Kanađane i Franko-Amerikance da se nasele na Zapadu.
  • Uspješno je pregovarao kako bi spriječio sukob između domorodaca iz Crne zemlje i kanadske pacifičke željeznice.

Preduzetnici i građevinari

Rođen 1763. u Spaldingu u Engleskoj, a umro 1836. u Sale-Marguerite, Qubebec.

Osirotio prije desete godine, John Molson emigrirao je u Kanadu kada je imao osamnaest godina s vizijama da postane poslovni čovjek. Uključio se u industriju piva i do 1786. godine posjedovao svoju pivovaru. Uspio je uvjeriti lokalne poljoprivrednike da uzgajaju ječam, bitan sastojak u proizvodnji piva. 1832. bio je uključen u pokretanje prve željezničke kompanije u Kanadi: željeznički put Champlain i St. Lawrence koji se kretao po drvenim prugama. Prometujući između gradova La Prairie i današnjeg Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Qu bec, pruga je otvorena 21. srpnja 1836. Nova ruta pružala je izravniju kopnenu vezu s rijekom Richelieu, a time i pristup do jezera Champlain i trguje sa Sjedinjenim Državama.

  • John Molson izgradio je prvu destileriju kolonije.
  • On je finansirao prvu kanadsku željeznicu, Champlain i St. Lawrence Rail Road, koja je prolazila po drvenim prugama.

Sir William Cornelius Van Horne

Rođen 1843. u Chelseaju, Illinois (SAD), a umro 1915. u Montralu, Qubebec.

William Cornelius Van Horne je cijeli život radio za željezničke kompanije. Sa četrnaest godina bio je telegrafista Centralne željeznice Ilinoisa. Bio je na raznim pozicijama povećanja odgovornosti kod željezničkih kompanija u Sjedinjenim Državama. Nakon što ga je Canadian Pacific zaposlio za generalnog direktora, ruta kompanije Prairie između Winnipega i Calgaryja brzo je završena. On je također nadgledao izgradnju posljednje i najizazovnije dionice željezničke pruge u Britanskoj Kolumbiji koja vodi do Port Moodyja. Canadian Pacific je očekivao da će izgradnja transkontinentalne željeznice trajati deset godina, ali s Van Horneom na čelu, projekt je završen za samo polovicu tog vremena.

  • William Cornelius Van Horne nadgledao je izgradnju kanadske pacifičke prve transkontinentalne željeznice.
  • Od turizma je napravio motor ekonomskog prosperiteta za kanadski Pacifik i bio je uključen u izgradnju hotela Banff Springs i Chôteau Frontenac.

Rođen 1856. na Rock Islandu, Illinois (SAD), a umro 1912. godine prilikom potonuća Titanica.

Željeznička karijera Charlesa Melvillea Haysa započela je u Sjedinjenim Državama, a nastavila se u Kanadi. Ušao je u svijet željeznica sa sedamnaest godina radeći za Atlantsku i Pacifičku željeznicu u St. Louisu, Missouri, u Sjedinjenim Državama. Kasnije je bio generalni direktor Wabash, St. Louis i Pacific Railroad. Godine 1896. zaposlen je za generalnog direktora Velike željezničke pruge, a 1909. imenovan je za predsjednika kompanije. Osnovao je Grand Trunk Pacific kako bi ostvario aspiracije kompanije u uspostavljanju ruta u zapadnoj Kanadi. Vlada premijera Wilfrida Lauriera dala je Haysu mandat da izgradi drugu transkontinentalnu prugu, koja je završena tek 1914., dvije godine nakon njegove smrti. Uprkos ovom velikom uspjehu, vrijeme koje je Hays proveo na mjestu predsjednika Grand Trunka bilo je ometeno problematičnim radnim odnosima i ozbiljnim finansijskim problemima.

  • Charles Melville Hays bio je predsjednik Grand Trunk Railway.
  • Bio je šef Pacifičke željeznice Grand Trunk tokom izgradnje druge kanadske transkontinentalne željeznice.
  • Sagradio je Chôteau Laurier Hotel u Ottawi.

Rođen 1853 u Actonu, Ontario, umro 1934 u Torontu, Ontario.

Nakon što se prvi put okušao u poljoprivredi, Donald Mann je radio za kanadsku pacifičku željeznicu u Manitobi, kao i u Stjenovitim planinama Britanske Kolumbije. Tamo je upoznao Williama Mackenziea, s kojim bi kupio kompaniju Railway & Canal Lake Manitoba. Naknadno proširenje ruta kompanije dovelo je do stvaranja Kanadske sjeverne željeznice. Donald Mann je bio glavni planer kompanije koja je izgradila treću kanadsku transkontinentalnu željeznicu. Nakon što je kanadski sjever apsorbiran spajanjem koje je rezultiralo stvaranjem kanadskih nacionalnih željeznica, Mann je svoju pažnju usmjerio na rudarski sektor.

  • Donald Mann i partner William Mackenzie nadgledali su izgradnju treće kanadske transkontinentalne željeznice.
  • Bio je generalni direktor kanadske sjeverne željeznice tokom iskopavanja prvog željezničkog tunela na svijetu ožičenog električnom energijom: tunela Mount Royal u Montralu, Qubebec.

Rođen 1849. u Kirkfieldu, Ontario, umro 1923. u Torontu, Ontario.

William Mackenzie bio je željeznički poduzetnik najpoznatiji po partnerstvu s Donaldom Mannom u kupovini kompanije Lake Manitoba Railway & Canal Company, koja je kasnije postala kanadska sjeverna željeznica. Njegova uloga u poslu bila je osigurati financiranje. 1915. njihova je željeznica postala treća koja je završila rutu preko Kanade od istoka prema zapadu. Kanadska sjeverna željeznica bila je jedna od nekoliko kompanija koje su spojene u Kanadske nacionalne željeznice, sada poznate kao CN.

  • William Mackenzie i partner Donald Mann nadgledali su izgradnju treće kanadske transkontinentalne željeznice.
  • Bio je generalni direktor kanadske sjeverne željeznice tokom iskopavanja prvog željezničkog tunela na svijetu ožičenog električnom energijom: tunela Mount Royal u Montralu, Qubebec.

Rođen 1871. u Logansportu u Indiani (SAD), a umro 1933. u New Yorku (SAD).

Henry Thornton započeo je svoju željezničku karijeru sa željeznicom u Pennsylvaniji, gdje su njegove odgovornosti uključivale inženjering željezničkih kolosijeka. Zatim je radio za Long Island Railroad prije nego što je otišao u Englesku kako bi preuzeo Great Western Railway. Krajem 1922. godine postao je prvi predsjednik novoformirane kanadske nacionalne željeznice, koja danas radi kao CN. Pod njegovim vodstvom, kompanija je razvila luksuzne usluge za putnike, uključujući prvoklasne hotele, i uvela radijsko emitiranje u svoje putničke vozove. Ove željezničke emisije dovele bi do stvaranja sadašnje Kanadske radiodifuzne korporacije. Henry Thornton bio je popularan među svojim zaposlenicima.

  • Henry Thornton razvio je željezničke usluge i infrastrukturu za male gradove, uključujući školske automobile i automobile Crvenog križa za opsluživanje djece u udaljenim zajednicama.
  • Uveo je radijske emisije za putovanja vozom. Putnici su čak mogli slušati prvi prenos hokejaške utakmice uživo 6. novembra 1937. godine, tokom programa koji je kasnije postao Hokejska noć u Kanadi! Željeznica je stoga bila ključna u stvaranju Kanadske radiodifuzne korporacije.

Rođen 1939. u Joliette, Qubebec.

Paul Tellier započeo je svoju karijeru kao viši državni službenik u saveznoj vladi. Poslovna zajednica brzo je prepoznala njegov talent i nastavio je raditi na rukovodećim položajima u nekoliko kompanija, uključujući Grand Trunk Corporation, podružnicu CN -a. Bio je predsjednik i izvršni direktor CN -a od 1992. do 2003. godine, period obilježen privatizacijom kompanije i širenjem u Sjedinjene Države. CN se danas smatra jednom od najopsežnijih željeznica u Sjevernoj Americi.

  • Paul Tellier nadgledao je privatizaciju CN -a i kupovinu američke željeznice kao dio strategije širenja kompanije.

Izuzetan inženjer

Rođen 1827. u Kirkcaldyju, Škotska, a umro 1916. u Halifaxu, Nova Škotska.

Sandford Fleming jedna je od najznačajnijih ličnosti u kanadskoj istoriji. Nakon što je studirao nauku i inženjerstvo u Škotskoj, emigrirao je u Kanadu 1845. godine, gdje je stekao reputaciju svojim radom kao vodeći mjernik na Interkolonijalnoj željezničkoj ruti koja povezuje grad Qubebec s Halifaxom. Kada je nakon Konfederacije započeto planiranje transkanadske željeznice, Fleming je 1871. imenovan za glavnog inženjera. Bio je odgovoran za identifikaciju najboljeg pravca za novu željeznicu, iako na kraju nijedan od njegovih mnogih prijedloga nije usvojen. Ipak, jednu od njegovih ruta kasnije je odabrala Kanadska sjeverna željeznica za vlastitu transkontinentalnu liniju, a CN je koristi i danas. Sandford Fleming je također poznat po tome što je razvio sistem standardnog vremena koje je osnova za današnje univerzalno vrijeme i međunarodne vremenske zone.


Putnički vozovi

Do kraja Drugog svjetskog rata voz je bio primarni način transporta na velike udaljenosti u Kanadi. Među mnogim tipovima ljudi koji su se vozili vlakovima CPR -a bili su novi imigranti koji su krenuli prema prerijama, trupe koje su krenule u rat (posebno tijekom dva svjetska rata) i turisti iz više klase. Takođe je po mjeri napravio mnoge svoje putničke automobile u svojim CPR Angus prodavnicama kako bi mogao zadovoljiti zahtjeve više klase. CPR je također imao liniju brodova Velikih jezera integriranu u transkontinentalnu uslugu. Od 1885. do 1912. ti su brodovi povezivali Owen Sound u Georgian Bayu s Fort Williamom. Nakon 1912. ti su brodovi, Assiniboia, Keewatin i Manitoba, imali sjedište u Port McNicol -u, ON. Putnici su išli vlakom od Toronta do Georgian Baya, a zatim su putovali brodom za povezivanje sa Kanađanin i Dominion u kanadskom Lakeheadu. Nakon Drugog svjetskog rata vozovi i brodovi prevozili su automobile i putnike. Usluga je prekinuta 1965. godine.

Nakon Drugog svjetskog rata, putnički promet je opao jer su automobili i avioni postajali sve češći, ali CPR je nastavio s inovacijama u pokušaju da održi broj putnika. 9. novembra 1953. godine CPR je predstavio Budd Rail Diesel Cars, nazvan "quotDayliners" od strane CPR, na nekim od svojih grana. 24. aprila 1955. CPR je predstavio novi luksuzni transkontinentalni putnički voz, Kanađanin. Voz je saobraćao između Vancouvera i Toronta ili Montreala (istočno od Sudburyja, voz je bio u dvije dionice). Voz su vukle dizel lokomotive i koristile nova, modernizovana vozna sredstva od nerđajućeg čelika.

Od 1960 -ih, međutim, željeznica je počela obustavljati veliki dio putničkih usluga, posebno na svojim granama. Na primjer, putnička služba završila je na svojoj liniji kroz južnu Britansku Kolumbiju i prijevoj Crowsnest u siječnju 1964., te na svom središtu Quebec u travnju 1967. i transkontinentalnim vlakom Dominion pao je u januaru 1966. Dana 29. oktobra 1978. CP Rail je prenio svoje putničke usluge na VIA Rail, novu saveznu krunsku korporaciju koja je sada bila odgovorna za međugradske putničke usluge u Kanadi.

Osim međugradskih putničkih usluga, CPR je pružao i željezničke usluge prigradskih prijevoza u Montrealu. CP Rail je ovdje predstavio prve dvokatne putničke automobile Kanade ovdje 1970. 1. oktobra 1982. godine, Tranzitna komisija za gradsku zajednicu u Montrealu (MUCTC) preuzela je odgovornost za prijevozne usluge koje je ranije pružala CP Rail.


Nacionalna transkontinentalna željeznica

Građevinski radnici u blizini Drydena, Ontario, početkom 20. stoljeća (ljubaznošću PAO/S 16182).

Nacionalna transkontinentalna željeznica

Razvoj NTR -a je ukorijenjen u igri moći između željezničkih poduzetnika i političara s početka dvadesetog stoljeća. Vizije o Zapadu bogatom žitaricama koje se širi s novim doseljenicima i industrijama potaknule su premijera, Sir Wilfrida Lauriera, da vladu posveti skupom, ali potencijalno profitabilnom poduzeću. Laurier je također vjerovao da će zdrava konkurencija natjerati CPR da snizi stope tereta, čime će zadovoljiti zapadne pošiljatelje, koji će doprinijeti zdravoj konkurenciji između željeznica. Uvjerio je GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY (GTR), pod vodstvom Charlesa HAYS -a, da uz pomoć kanadske sjeverne željeznice učestvuje u proširenju zapadne željeznice. Međutim, međusobne ljubomore onemogućile su logičku saradnju između GTR-a i kanadskog sjevera, pa je, shvativši njen značaj za nacionalni razvoj, savezna vlada odlučila izgraditi dio same linije. Podružnica GTR -a, kompanija GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC RAILWAY (GTPR), izgradila bi zapadni dio (od Winnipega do Pacifika), dok bi sama vlada izgradila istočni dio (od Winnipega do Monctona) i na kraju ga predala GTPR -u za rad .

1903, Laurierova vlada donijela je Zakon o željeznici, omogućavajući izgradnju projekta. Zakon je precizirao osnivanje Odbora povjerenika željeznica, preteče KANADSKE AGENCIJE ZA TRANSPORT, koji će nadzirati projekt. Ipak, povjerenici su se suočili s zastrašujućim zadatkom. Značajna prekoračenja izgradnje željeznice otvorila su Laurierove liberale za nadzor javnosti, što je kasnije dovelo do njihovog pada 1911. Zadatak je prepušten torijevima Roberta BORDENA da dovrše.

Usprkos značajnim problemima s administracijom i troškovima, posljednji skok dogodio se 17. novembra 1913. godine, dovršivši istočni dio, osim QUÉBECOVOG MOSTA. NTR nikada nije uključen, a finansijski problemi GTPR -a spriječili su ga da preuzme NTR kako je dogovoreno. Ostala je pod vladinom upravom do 1918. godine, kada su operacije povjerene nedavno nacionaliziranoj kanadskoj sjevernoj željeznici. Godine 1923. postala je dio KANADSKE NACIONALNE ŽELJEZNICE.


Transkontinentalna željeznica završena

10. maja 1869. godine Transkontinentalna željeznica završena je vožnjom zlatnog šiljaka na samitu Promontory, Utah.

Razgovori o željezničkoj pruzi koja vodi preko Amerike počeli su još 1832. godine, kada je dr. Hartwell Carver predložio jednu od jezera Michigan do Oregona. Kongres je počeo ozbiljno razmatrati tu ideju krajem 1840 -ih, nakon otkrića zlata u Kaliforniji.

Da li ste znali svaka od ovih marki je “klika koja se može kliknuti? ” Možete kliknuti na svaku da saznate više o njoj i kupiti je za svoju kolekciju!
Stavka #CSA6 - Kao ministar rata, Jefferson Davis je nadgledao rana istraživanja željeznice.

U ranim 1850 -im, ratni sekretar Jefferson Davis uputio je niz istraživanja pacifičkih željeznica kako bi istražio moguće rute. Njihovo opsežno istraživanje proizvelo je 12 svezaka o prirodi i domorocima Zapada. Ovo istraživanje je takođe dovelo do kupovine Gadsdena, koji je kupio zemljište u budućim državama Arizona i Novi Meksiko duž predložene rute.

Zastupnički dom je do 1856. godine formirao Odabrani odbor za pacifičku željeznicu i telegraf. Oni su izjavili: „Potreba koja sada postoji za izgradnju željezničkih pruga i telegrafske komunikacije između atlantske i pacifičke obale ovog kontinenta više nije pitanje argumenta, to priznaju svi. Da bismo zadržali svoj trenutni položaj na Pacifiku, moramo imati brža i izravnija sredstva snošaja nego što to trenutno omogućuje ruta kroz posjede strane sile. ”

SAD #77 - Predsjednik Lincoln odobrio je izgradnju Transkontinentalne željeznice 1862.

Početkom 1860 -ih dogovoreno je da je željeznica neophodna, ali kako je nacija bila uključena u raspravu o ropstvu koja će ih uskoro poslati u građanski rat, nitko se nije mogao složiti treba li istočni kraj biti u sjevernom ili južnom gradu. Razgovori su zastali kad je rat počeo. No 1862. predsjednik Lincoln potpisao je Pacifički zakon o željeznici. Tim činom željezničke kompanije Union Pacific i Central Pacific dale su odgovornost stvaranja transkontinentalne željezničke rute, otprilike slijedeći 42. paralelu od Omahe, Nebraska, do Sacramenta u Kaliforniji. Željezničke linije u Chicagu trebalo je produžiti kako bi zadovoljile novu prugu u Omahi.

Željeznička kompanija Union Pacific krenula je prema zapadu od Council Bluffs -a u Iowi, dok je Central Pacific izgrađena istočno od Sacramenta u Kaliforniji. Zbog njihovih napora, Kongres je ovim željezničkim kompanijama odobrio velike parcele zemlje i milione dolara kredita. Centralni Pacifik započeo je radove na svom kraju željeznice 8. januara 1863. Nalazeći se hiljadama milja od istočnih proizvodnih centara, dugo su čekali na zalihe, koje su prevožene brodovima oko južnoameričkog rta Horn ili kroz Isthmus Paname. Izgradnja željezničke pruge Union Pacific započela je tek nakon završetka rata, u srpnju 1865.

Kad je rat završio, mnogi veterani vojske radili su za Union Pacific zajedno s irskim imigrantima. Na Zapadu je bilo teško pronaći radnu snagu, ali su kineski imigranti marljivo gurnuli prugu preko planina Sierra Nevada.

Stavka #MA1552 -Poklopac Wells Farga iz 1865-69.

Konačno, 10. maja 1869. godine tračnice dviju željeznica srele su se na samitu Promontory, na teritoriji Utah. Guverner Kalifornije Leland Stanford imao je čast voziti konačni zlatni šiljak. Čekići i šiljci koji su korišteni u ceremoniji bili su spojeni na telegrafsku liniju tako da se svaki udarac mogao čuti kao telegrafski „klik“ širom zemlje (iako se čekić nije registrirao). Svečani zlatni šiljak tada je uklonjen i zamijenjen običnim gvozdenim šiljkom, a poslan je i telegraf s jednostavno porukom: "GOTOVO". Proslave su odmah počele na telegrafskim stanicama širom zemlje. Transkontinentalna pruga duga 1776 milja bila je dovršena. Putovanje koje je nekad trajalo šest mjeseci ili više sada se svelo na samo jednu sedmicu.


Izgradnja željeznice kroz kanadski štit

Dok je Sir Sandford Fleming bio vodeći geometar, kanadsku pacifičku željeznicu je Sir William Cornelius van Horne angažirao za upravljanje zgradom pruge od Fort Williama do Winnipega, kao i dalje u prerije i do Stenovitih planina.

Van Horne je rođen 1843. u Illinoisu, a sa samo 14 godina počeo je raditi na željeznici. Van Horne je bio visoko uključen u željeznice u Sjedinjenim Državama, a smatrao je da je željeznica vitalna komunikacijska i transportna usluga. Zato je uvijek ubjeđivao graditelje da uključe i telegrafsku liniju. Do svoje četrdesete godine bio je izuzetno bogat i zapravo će postati predsjednik kanadske pacifičke željeznice 1888. godine i predsjednik odbora 1899. godine.

Željeznički tajkun James Hill rekao bi za njega, citat:

„Nikada nisam sreo nikoga bolje informisanog u različitim odjelima. Mašine, automobili, operacije, usluge vozova, građevinarstvo i opšta politika koja bi uz neumornu energiju i dobro snažno tijelo trebale dati dobre rezultate. ”

Van Horne će zvanično preuzeti vlast 1881. godine, kada je izgradnja željeznice počela dostizati velike brzine. On bi zgradu željeznice podijelio u tri dijela. Od Fort Williama do Winnipega bio je jedan dio, Winnipeg do Stenovitih planina bio je sljedeći odjeljak, a posljednji dio bio je Stjenovito gorje do Tihog oceana.

Druga osoba koja je bila vitalna za uspjeh izgradnje preko štita bio je Robert Gillespie Reid. Škotski inženjer i samostalni biznismen, nadzirao bi izgradnju mostova i polaganje staza preko Kanadskog štita. Jedno od njegovih krunskih dostignuća bio je tunel dugačak 137 metara probijen kroz željezničku dionicu zaljeva Jackfish. Izgradnja željeznice kroz to područje koštala je 700.000 dolara po milji, što bi danas bilo više od 20 miliona dolara.

Posade su bile postavljene s različitim zadacima za izgradnju pruge kroz Kanadski štit. Mornarica je prva prošla, čisteći drveće i žbunje duž željezničke trase.

Ako se radilo o planinskom terenu, tada su dinamiti minirači imali zadatak da miniraju kroz stijenu kako bi stvorili liniju za željezničku prugu.

Zatim su došle ekipe za ocjenjivanje, koje bi ocjenjivale i uzdizale kolnik koristeći timove konja i povlačeći strugače i plugove kroz novo očišćeno zemljište.

Sljedeći su bili tragači koji su odložili drvene željezničke spone preko kolnika dva metra jedna od druge. Zatim su sa svake strane vezica postavljene čelične šine dugačke 12 metara ili 39 stopa, a zatim su zabijene željezne šiljke kako bi se šine držale na mjestu.

U područje Kanadskog štita radnici su obično dolazili iz Evrope, Sjedinjenih Država i istočne Kanade, za razliku od Britanske Kolumbije gdje je 15.000 Kineza i dječaka dovedeno na izgradnju željeznice. Govorit ću o njihovim mukama 5. augusta. Radnici u Kanadskom štitu obično su plaćeni od 1 do 2,50 dolara dnevno, ovisno o poslu.

Izgradnja čak i kratkih dionica kroz Kanadski štit bila je sve samo ne jeftina. Od Fort Williama do Selkirka, na udaljenosti od 659 kilometara, troškovi ocjenjivanja, premošćavanja, postavljanja kolosijeka i balasta iznosili su 12 miliona dolara, odnosno više od 300 miliona dolara danas. Troškovi šina i pričvršćivača danas su iznosili 3 miliona dolara ili više od 90 miliona dolara. To je koštalo 136.570 dolara po kilometru. Što se tiče troškova izgradnje od Selkirka do Edmontona, a zatim do Stenovitih planina, cijena je bila barem 27 000 000 USD, barem se procjenjuje. Naravno, troškovi bi bili mnogo veći nego prije nego što je to učinjeno.

Procjenjuje se da je kroz Kanadski štit radilo 9.000 graditelja željeznica. Za te radnike iskopali bi zemlju u nadi da će izgraditi nasip, samo da bi pronašli temelje i neke od najtvrđih stijena na svijetu.

Korišteni dinamit nije ono što mislimo danas. Dok je dinamit postojao oko deset godina do početka radova na željeznici, umjesto toga je korišten nitroglicerin. Bio je 10 puta eksplozivniji, ali daleko nestabilniji od novog dinamita. Radnici su sipali eksploziv u rupe izbušene rukom, svaka duboka oko šest stopa, i krenuli s osiguračem. U samo jednom odjeljku, tokom dvije godine, potrošeno je 300.000 dolara na nitroglicerin. Duž cijele pruge, limenke nitroglicerina ostale su sa osiguračima pričvršćenima na neoprezan način. Zimi, zbog toga što je kemikalija vrlo nestabilna kada se smrzne, cijele radne ekipe iznenada bi bile izbrisane kada bi jedna od tih limenki eksplodirala.

Jedan mladić koji se penjao na brdo sa konzervom eksploziva je skliznuo. Od mladića je pronađeno samo stopalo na drvetu udaljenom 100 metara. Jedan drugi radnik pružao je limenku nitroglicerina jednoj bušilici i noga mu je skliznula, a u trenu su tri čovjeka osakaćena, a četiri muškarca mrtva. Drugi radnik prošao je pored stijene na koju je prosuto nešto eksploziva. Izgubio je ruku i vid.

Jedan od najgorih incidenata dogodio se na pristaništu princa Arthura u blizini današnjeg zaljeva Thunder. Cijela tvornica nitroglicerina eksplodirala je, poslavši smrznute komade zemlje pola kilometra dalje i ostavivši rupu duboku 20 stopa i 50 stopa u širini.

Prethodno spomenuti muskeg predstavljao je čitav niz problema. Za radnike koji su morali izgraditi željezničku prugu kroz stotine kilometara muskega, u onome što danas zovemo Lake Lake, nisu mogli ni znati da će njihov vlastiti pakao stoljeće kasnije postati turistička destinacija. Jedna legenda o izgradnji pruge kaže da je u blizini Fort Williama jedan dio muskega progutao cijeli vlak i 1000 stopa pruge.

Tokom zime, radnici bi gradili ogromne zalihe koje su izgledale kao da su stabilne, ali čim bi se smrznuti muskeg otopio u proljeće, cijela bi se osnova podigla i posrnula. Rupe od mušketa bi bile popunjene, samo da bi se ponornica muskega ponovo pojavila. Poljska močvara bila je jedno užasno mjesto za rad, ali ništa u usporedbi s Julius Muskegom koji se protezao 10 kilometara i bio nepoznate dubine.

Jezera su bila drugo pitanje. Djelovali bi plitko, ali zbog brzih pregleda nitko nije shvatio da dno nije dno, već lažni pokrivač mulja i muskega. Crews would put earth fill into the lakes only for it to seem like a bottomless pit. Lake Macquistananah was said to take 250,000 yards of earth fill, while another lake took 200,000 yards nearby. Joseph Whitehead was hired to put earth fill in Cross Lake and after putting in 220,000 yards at a cost of $80,000, and the line still sinking when it went over, he was relieved of his contract by the federal government.

At Lake Deception, James Ross had a huge team of horses and freight cars putting gravel into the water, but the banks slid away faster than the gravel could be poured in. He then built huge retaining rocks using rocks from the tunnels he blasted. It didn’t help. In one day, the walls sunk 25 feet in only a few minutes, pushing the bulwarks of rock 100 feet out into the lake. He then hammered pilings deep into the lake bottom, built a trestle over it and then filled the trestle with rock and gravel. Then, a work train went over the causeway and the pilings sank 50 feet.

Near Bonheur, a construction crew thought it had filled in a muskeg hole, but the entire track soon vanished into the mud. Entire trainloads of gravel were dumped into the muskeg and a track was put forward. A locomotive went across and soon the track began to sink. With a pole, workers found there was still at least 30 feet of muskeg below the track, and there was no sign of the gravel they had dumped into it.

Near present-day Schreiber, Ontario, to the east of Fort William, one section was extremely difficult. Chief John Ross would write to Vane Horne and state, quote:

“When we came to the North Shore, we thought that everything was solid and that good foundations would be found everywhere, we did not anticipate the treacherous bottom or the tremendous power of Lake Superior.”

At the Nipigon River, it took two years to construct a bridge because the riverbed kept shifting the masonry piers.

In the winter, heavy snow caused delays, while spring brought floods and black flies. In the summer, devastating storms off the Great Lakes would batter the workers on the rail line.

All of this difficulty naturally made alcohol something a lot of the men looked for to relieve the stress and boredom. Michael Henry would write, quote:

“There was not an engineer, contractor or traveler who were not hard drinkers. Particularly every transaction was consummated with a glass.”

Prohibition was in effect all along the line, but whiskey peddlers kept kegs of liquor stored at points along the way.

The Thunder Bay Sentinel would write, quote:

“The knowing ones can obtain a bottle of a villainous article called whiskey by following certain trails into the recesses of the dismal swamps.”

A gallon of whiskey would sell for 50 cents in the cities but would go for as much as $45 along the line. Even if caught, peddlers only faced a fine, which they could easily pay, if they did at all. Many of those in charge decided not to prevent whiskey from getting to the workers, but instead worked with the peddlers to have a schedule so that it wouldn’t impede work.

Along the way, speculators did what they could to make money off the building of the railroad through the area. John Clark is an example of this. He had bought property at Fort William in 1871 for $4 per lot. He bought five lots for $20. He then sold the lots to Joseph Davidson out of Toronto and received $60 for four of them, and $100 for the fifth one. Not as much of a profit as others saw, but still a very large profit, nonetheless.

Along the way, it wasn’t just the railroad that was constructed. As the tracklayers built the track, behind them, crews were putting up poles and stringing a telegraph line along the tracks. The stringing of this line would connect many communities along the way to the growing modern age of communication.

On April 29, 1879, the Montreal Gazette would report that the section of telegraph line from Fort William to Edmonton had 1,931 kilometres of telegraph line ready for use, with 1,000 kilometres of line still needing to be finished east of Fort William and west of Edmonton. The telegraph line from Fort William to Winnipeg was completed in 1878.

Information comes from the Port Moody Station Museum, Wikipedia, Canadian Encyclopedia, Red River North Heritage, Sandford Fleming 1872 Survey Report, Montreal Gazette, Historica Canada, The National Dream,


HistoryLink.org

The history of railroading in Seattle closely parallels the city's development and early hopes for its future. Like communication networks today, railroading in the nineteenth century represented more than steel tracks and trade. The romantic and practical potential of the rails wooed communities, especially those in the West, much as Web commerce and Internet startups entrance and confound us today. Such was the story of early railroad development in Seattle, King County, and the Puget Sound region.

Before the Rails

Like most other would-be metropolises in the frontier West, Seattle looked to a transcontinental rail connection to secure its future prosperity. The village's founders may have felt this need even more keenly than those of neighboring towns for they had settled on the western shore of Elliott Bay in the spring of 1852 with the avowed aim not merely to exploit the area's abundant natural resources but to build a great and permanent city.

Travel between America's coasts then took months, whether overland by wagon or by sailing ship or steamer via Cape Horn. The idea of reducing this time to weeks or even days via a transcontinental railroad terminating at Puget Sound was first advanced in 1845 by Asa Whitney (1791-1874), a New York trader with extensive dealings in "the Orient." His proposal was doubly audacious, for America's handful of primitive railroads were not 15 years old and Puget Sound had only just been charted by U.S. Navy Lt. Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) in 1841.

Whitney petitioned Congress to charter and finance a line between Lake Superior and Puget Sound. He promoted the route with evangelical zeal, for "Nature's God had made this for the grand highway to Civilize and Christianize all mankind." Congress was slow to see the light. It did adopt Whitney's idea of spurring private railroad investors by giving them generous "land grants" along both sides of the proposed rail bed. The land was free, after all, since it had been wrested by force or treaty from the original Native owners.

The federal government did not dispatch Army surveyors to explore possible routes to the Pacific Northwest until the early 1850s. One such expedition was led by Isaac Stevens (1818-1862), destined to become the first governor of Washington Territory in 1853. Congress finally chartered the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1864, as the Civil War neared its bloody climax, and awarded land grants totaling 60 million acres in checkerboard sections along a 40- to 80-mile-wide strip flanking the planned route from Minnesota to Puget Sound.

Development of a northern railroad took a back seat to political and economic pressures elsewhere, and the honor of completing the nation's first transcontinental railroad fell to the California-bound Union Pacific in 1869. The following year, financier Jay Cooke (1821-1905) pledged his fortune to building the Northern Pacific. Crews at opposite ends of the future road began laying track nearly simultaneously. One aimed west from Duluth and the other faced east from Kalama, Washington Territory, on the Columbia River.

The question of where on Puget Sound the line would ultimately end was intentionally left open, and the region's fledgling cities began competing furiously for the good fortune of a major railroad terminus.

Tacoma's Gain is Seattle's Pain

In 1870, as construction of the Northern Pacific began, Seattle numbered fewer than 1,200 souls. Washington Territory's largest city and capital, Olympia, seemed the leading candidate for the Northern Pacific's Puget Sound terminus. This did not prevent other towns from making their own bids. They knew that their youth -- and the promise of unencumbered access to cheap land and water -- evened the odds against older, more established cities.

In 1872, Seattle offered Northern Pacific 7,500 town lots, 3,000 acres, $50,000 in cash, $200,000 in bonds, and a 30-foot-wide strip along its waterfront. It was enough to move it to the finals, along with Mukilteo and Tacoma. Tacoma was then barely a village on the shore of Commencement Bay.

After wining and dining an inspection team of railroad commissioners, Seattle was certain that it would win their nod. Therefore, a large and expectant crowed gathered at Yesler's Mill on July 14, 1873, to hear Arthur A. Denny (1822-1899), leader of Seattle's original party of settlers, read the telegram announcing the railroad's decision. One can only imagine the sound of mass inhalation when Denny recited its terse message: "We have located the terminus on Commencement Bay."

It took Seattle a few days to regain its breath, and its confidence. It resolved to build its own transcontinental railroad, or at least one that crossed Snoqualmie Pass to link Seattle with the farmlands of Eastern Washington. Meanwhile, any gloating in the self-anointed "City of Destiny" to the south was cut short on September 18, 1873, when Jay Cooke's fortune evaporated in a national economic panic. The Northern Pacific literally stopped dead in its tracks (and direct transcontinental service would not commence for another decade).

Undaunted, Seattle's population reached into its wallets (and into those of some East Coast investors), rolled up its sleeves, and tapped what became know as the "Seattle Spirit." Much of the town turned out on May 1, 1874, to begin laying the Seattle & Walla Walla Railroad's first tracks at Steele's Landing on the mouth of the Duwamish River. The work proved to be no picnic, but the line was slowly pushed south five miles to the new coal mines in Renton.

James M. Colman (1832-1906), of Colman Dock fame, then took charge and hired Chin Gee Hee and his crew of immigrant Chinese workers to extend the line to Newcastle. Although the Seattle & Walla Walla never got close to the city in its last name, the final 21-mile line earned quick profits hauling coal from the South King County mines to Elliott Bay piers and helped to establish Seattle as the economic center of Puget Sound.

Henry Villard (1835-1900), whose Oregon and Eastern Washington railroads and steamship lines were filling the void left by the Northern Pacific's paralysis, was quick to note Seattle's successes. He bought the Seattle & Walla Walla (and its generous waterfront franchise) in 1880, reorganized it as the Columbia & Puget Sound Railroad, and erected the town's first train depot, little more than a shed, not far from where Union Station would rise 20 years later.

Seattle rejoiced when Henry Villard quietly bought up Northern Pacific's languishing shares through his famous "Blind Trust" in 1881, and again when he pounded in the railroad's final spike at Gold Creek, Montana, on September 8, 1883. Villard visited Seattle six days later, aboard the Queen of the Pacific, and promised a jubilent throng that they would finally gain their long awaited transcontinental link.

True to his word, Villard built a spur northward from Tacoma that joined the existing Columbia & Puget Sound line at "Stuck Junction" in present-day Auburn. The name proved prophetic for Villard temporarily lost control of the Northern Pacific on January 4, 1884, and his successors vowed that "a locomotive would never turn a wheel into Seattle."

"The Seattle Spirit" Rides Again

For the second time in a decade, Seattle saw a transcontinental railroad connection snatched from its grasp, and for the second time, the town's leaders resolved to build their own. On April 15, 1885, Judge Thomas Burke (1849-1925) and financier Daniel Gilman (1845-1913) incorporated the Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern Railroad to build a new line north from Seattle's harbor to Ballard.

The city granted them a 120-foot-wide right of way along the waterfront and west of the old Seattle & Walla Walla strip now owned by Northern Pacific. Piers were sunk and planks laid to create a second waterfront along "Railroad Avenue" (since filled in to create Alaskan Way). The railroad later laid track westward from Spokane and planned to push north from Seattle to link with the Canadian Pacific Railroad at Sumas, a move that Northern Pacific tried everything in its power to thwart.

Worries about competition from the little Seattle upstart railroad motivated Northern Pacific's decision in 1883 to build its "Cascade Branch," a diagonal shortcut from the Columbia to Tacoma via Stampede Pass. Much of the work was performed by immigrant Chinese workers, whose industry and diligence won initial praise. But when the economy soured in 1885, many white workers directed their anger at these strangers in their midst.

The Knights of Labor and early labor unions complained in vain about the low wages and poor working conditions that immigrants were willing to tolerate. Mobs attacked and expelled Chinese from several cities along the West Coast during the winter of 1885. Violence erupted in Seattle on February 7 and 8, 1886, and despite the intervention of Judge Burke and other civic leaders, most of the town's Chinese nationals were herded onto a ship bound for San Francisco. Despite harsh state and federal laws limiting the immigration of Chinese nationals and barring their ownership of property, the Chinese community slowly rebuilt itself over the next 20 years and developed a thriving commercial district within blocks of the city's new railroad stations.

A different kind of calamity struck Seattle on June 6, 1889, when a cabinet maker's glue pot boiled over and ignited a blaze that consumed most of the city's wood-frame downtown. Again the community rallied. New buildings -- built of brick and stone this time -- quickly rose from the ruins to create today's Pioneer Square district.

By the time of the Great Fire, Henry Villard had regained control of Northern Pacific, and he introduced direct transcontinental service to Seattle, no longer mandating a change of trains at Tacoma. At the time, the Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern was scrambing for new capital, and Villard quietly bought up its stock and bonds from Eastern investors. In 1892, the Northern Pacific built the city a modest passenger station on Railroad Avenue between Madison and Columbia streets.

The Empire Builder Meets His Match

The Northern Pacific's acquisition of the Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern was motivated in large part by fear of two other entrants into the arena of Northwest railroading: the Union Pacific, with which Villard had tried to form a regional alliance, and the new St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba -- later known as the Great Northern Railway.

The latter was led by James Jerome Hill (1838-1916), a small man of prodigious intelligence and energy, who in 1887 began to push his new transcontinental line westward across Montana and Idaho. The audacious "Empire Builder" financed his railroad without benefit of federal land grants in part by promoting homesteading and real estate development along his line (with sometimes tragic results, as described in Jonathan Raban's Bad Land).

Hill kept his eye focused on Puget Sound and on the Pacific beyond. In 1889, he bought the short Fairhaven & Southern Railroad on Bellingham Bay. At the same time, he set off a new bidding war among Puget Sound cities to win the honor of serving as the Great Northern's ultimate terminal.

Fortunately for Seattle, in 1890 Hill hired Judge Burke as his local counsel. Burke lured Hill to the city with an unused portion of the old Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern's waterfront right of way on Railroad Avenue and other emoluments. Unfortunately, neither Hill nor Burke had foreseen an immovable obstacle in the Great Northern's path: Seattle City Engineer Reginald Heber Thomson (1856-1949).

Despite howls from the press and business community that he was betraying his city, Thomson resolutely opposed adding yet another railroad along the city's already congested waterfront. Hill temporarily made do with a terminal at Smith Cove, north of the harbor, where his first trains arrived on June 20, 1893. At that time, "The Empire Builder" met personally with Thomson, who told him that he should join forces with Northern Pacific and tunnel beneath the downtown and develop his main terminal south of Pioneer Square. Hill saw the wisdom of this scheme, but replied that his finances would not allow him to pursue it immediately.

It was just as well, for the bottom fell out of the national economy later that year. Hill survived, but the Northern Pacific and Union Pacific were bankrupted and Seattle plunged into a depression that did not ease until the onset of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897.

As prosperity returned locally and nationally that year, E. H. Harriman (1848-1909) purchased the moribund Union Pacific. Four years later, James H. Hill took control of the Northern Pacific. The two titans fought a seesaw battle for dominance in the Northwest and Hill seemed to be gaining the upper hand until 1904, when his giant Northern Securities holding company was broken up by enforcement of the new Sherman Anti-Trust Act. He took it in stride and still managed to guide both the Great Northern and Northern Pacific by other means.

Meanwhile in 1903, Hill began digging the tunnel beneath downtown Seattle that R. H. Thomson had proposed a decade earlier. Workers joked that it was the world's longest because it ran from "Virginia to Washington" -- streets, that is, not states.

While agreeing to the tunnel, Hill initially balked at demands that he build Seattle a worthy railroad station. "It is more important to Seattle to have goods delivered to it cheaply," he replied, "than to have a fancy depot." He thought the old Northern Pacific shed on Railroad Avenue was quite adequate. Ultimately, Hill lost this argument too.

The tunnel was completed in 1906 and its southern portal opened onto the Great Northern and Northern Pacific's new "Union Depot" -- now King Street Station. Not to be outdone, the Union Pacific's subsidiary Oregon-Washington Railroad soon announced plans for its own grand terminal. Open in May 1911, it also began serving passengers traveling on the Milwaukee Road, the last major railroad to enter the Northwest, and became known as Union Station.

Thirty-eight years after Arthur Denny read that first discouraging telegram from Northern Pacific, Seattle could boast of four direct transcontinental railroads and two elegant passenger stations.

Seattle & Walla Walla Railroad over tideflats, detail from map, 1878

Izvori:

Carlos Schwantes, Railroad Signatures Across the Pacific Northwest (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1993), 50, 52-53, 132-136, 226 Clarence Bagley, History of King County Washington (Chicago-Seattle: S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1929), 243, 245 Robert C. Nesbit, He Built Seattle: A Biography of Judge Thomas Burke (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1961), 35, 236 Reginald H. Thomson, That Man Thomson (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1950), 49-56.


It's All About Steam.

For centuries, man had attempted to harness the mechanical power of heat and water. As early as 200 BC, in his Pneumatica, Hero of Alexandria described a device called an Aeolipile, considered to be the first recorded steam engine. A ball containing water was mounted over a cauldron and, as it heated, two protruding bent tubes shot out jets of steam, causing the ball to spin. Many such devices were conceived in the following centuries as scientists studied the principles of hydraulics, pneumatics, and the properties of gasses, but these devices did not perform real work. It was not until the 18 th century in Britain that the steam engine began to change not only the face of industry, but humanity's relationship to work and society.

How a Newcomen Engine Works

Water is boiled to create steam that pushes upward on a piston in a cylinder. The piston rod is attached to a crossbeam and as the piston rises, the weight of a pump rod hung on the opposite end of the beam pulls downward. When the piston reaches the top of the cylinder, a jet of water is injected into the piston cylinder causing the steam to condense, sucking the piston back down. The cooling water drains out and the cycle repeats indefinitely.

In 1712 , Thomas Newcomen and his assistant John Cally unveiled the first commercially viable steam engine. The Newcomen atmospheric engine used steam to power a pump. Though it was not very efficient, hundreds of these engines were used for pumping water from British coal mines and flooded areas.

In the late 18 th century, James Watt, the man who would eventually be called the father of the steam engine, greatly improved the efficiency of the stationary engine when he patented a "double acting" engine that used high pressure steam on both sides of the piston to double the output. His patents also included such ancillary devices as pressure gauges, throttle valves, and steam regulators. In partnership with manufacturer Matthew Boulton, Watt's improvements and inventions powered the industrial revolution.

Following Watt's improvements, many inventors attempted to adapt the steam engine to modes of transport on both land and water. To achieve motive steam power would, for the first time in history, allow man to travel on land at a speed faster than that of the domesticated horse.

In 1802, Richard Trevithick patented a "high pressure engine" and created the first steam-powered locomotive engine on rails. Trevithick wrote on February 21, 1804, after the trial of his High Pressure Tram-Engine, that he "carry'd ten tons of Iron, five wagons, and 70 Men. above 9 miles. in 4 hours and 5 Mints." Though a ponderous-sounding journey, it was the first step toward an invention that would utterly change man's relationship to time and space.

George Stephenson and his son, Robert, built the first practical steam locomotive. Stephenson built his "travelling engine" in 1814, which was used to haul coal at the Killingworth mine. In 1829, the Stephensons built the famous locomotive Rocket, which used a multi-tube boiler, a practice that continued in successive generations of steam engines. The Rocket won the competition at the Rainhill Trials held to settle the question of whether it was best to move wagons along rails by fixed steam engines using a pulley system or by using locomotive steam engines. The Rocket won the £500 prize with its average speed of 13 miles per hour (without pulling a load, the Rocket attained speeds up to 29 miles per hour), beating out Braithwaite and Erickson's Novelty and Timothy Hackworth's Sans Pareil. The Stephensons incorporated elements into their engines that were used in succeeding generations of steam engines.

Though the first locomotive to operate on an American railroad was the Stourbridge Lion, built in 1828 and imported from England by Horatio Allen of New York, the British locomotives did not come to dominate American railways because they were too heavy for the relatively light and often uneven American tracks. Zapravo, Lion was soon relegated to functioning as a stationary steam engine.

American inventors and engineers had been on a parallel course with the British and, as early as 1812, John Stevens had petitioned Congress to support a national railroad. He had also built the first American steam locomotive in 1825. A multi-tube boiler engine, it ran on a circular demonstration track on his property in Hoboken, New Jersey. Though he was not successful in getting financial support for a national railroad or his locomotive, Stevens later founded one of America's first railroads, the Camden & Amboy Railroad.

Peter Cooper's Tom Thumb, built in 1830, was the first American locomotive to pull a passenger car on a railroad. Though small it was powerful enough to convince the directors of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad of the practical application of the steam locomotive.

The distinction of being the first to pull a train of cars over an American railroad in regular service goes to the Best Friend of Charleston in 1831. Designed by E. L. Miller and built in New York, the Best Friend operated for nearly six months until its boiler exploded when a worker, who was irritated by the sound of the hissing steam, lashed down a safety valve.

The year 1831 also saw Matthias Baldwin establish the Baldwin Locomotive Works. His second steam engine, the E.L. Miller, established the prototype from which later engines developed. By the end of the 19 th century, Matthias Baldwin's company became the largest single-plant locomotive builder in the world and dominated the market for over one hundred years, manufacturing approximately 59,000 locomotives.

The first locomotives were built with fixed wheels, which worked well on straight tracks but not so well in America's mountainous terrain. An American civil engineer, John Jervis, designed the locomotive the Experiment in 1832, which had a swiveling four-wheeled guide truck, also known as a "bogie," that could follow the track and enable locomotives to travel on railways with tighter curves.


Locomotive America built by the Grant Locomotive Works, of Paterson, N. J., for the 1867 Paris Exposition, a standard American 4-4-0 locomotive of the mid-19th century.

The pilot, or "cow catcher," was unique to American locomotives. The rail lines were not fenced and the railroad companies were responsible for any damage done by a collision with an animal, which could derail a locomotive. The John Bull, in about 1833, was one of the first locomotives in America to be fitted with such a device to clear obstacles off the track. Soon, pilots became standard appliances for American locomotives.

Locomotives could be configured in a number of ways, categorized by the wheel arrangement of the leading truck, driving wheels, and the trailing truck. The 4-4-0 configuration (that is, four wheels on the leading truck and four driving wheels, with no trailing truck), was most commonly used in the U.S and came to be known as the American Standard. The locomotives that met at Promontory Summit, the Central Pacific's Jupiter and the Union Pacific's Engine No. 119, were both 4-4-0 locomotives.

American manufacturers produced locomotives equal in capacity to British engines, but at lower cost. Though American engines were elaborately decorated with expensive brass work and labor costs were higher than in Britain, American manufacturers reduced costs by using less expensive cast iron rather than wrought iron for many components. America's railroads began by using locomotives imported from Britain, but by the end of the 19 th century, America was a major producer of locomotives and had exported more than 2,900 engines.

It is not an exaggeration to say that steam power and locomotives had the same transformative effect in the 19 th century that the computer had in the 20 th . Robert Thurston, in his 1878 book on the history of the steam engine, said that it would be "superfluous to attempt to enumerate the benefits which it has conferred upon the human race, for such an enumeration would include an addition to every comfort and the creation of almost every luxury that we now enjoy."


Maps, images, and other
content used in this site are
derived from the collections of
the Linda Hall Library.


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