Tumba Madzari

Tumba Madzari

Tumba Madzari je neolitsko naselje u sjeveroistočnom dijelu Skoplja, u Makedoniji, i najznačajnije je neolitsko nalazište u dolini Vardar. Najistaknutiji je po pred-indoevropskim statuama velike majke koje predstavljaju dokaz kulta velike boginje majke.

Tumba Madzari historija

Tumba Madzari bilo je neolitsko selo u regiji Gazi Baba, nastanjeno na brdu ili 'tumbi' i nastanjeno između 6000. i 4300. godine prije nove ere. U tom razdoblju zemljište je uglavnom koristilo za poljoprivredu kulturna grupa Anzabegovo-Vršnik koja je živjela u malim zajednicama i prehranila se domaćom sadnjom i životinjama uz potporu lovom i stočnom hranom.

U Tumba Madzariju stanovnici neolita izgradili su strukturu za koju se smatralo da se koristi kao svetilište, što ukazuje na zajedničku religiju zajednice. Naselje je izgradilo i nekoliko pred-indoevropskih skulptura Velike Majke, Kulta Velike Boginje Majke. Ove skulpture sugerirale su da je neolitska zajednica matristička, društveni sistem u kojem su žene imale primarne političke i moralne pozicije moći za razliku od kasnijih indoevropskih kultura.

Iskopavanja Tumbe Madzari prvi je započeo 1978. godine Muzej Makedonije, nakon što je to mjesto otkriveno 1961. godine, kada je u blizini planirana izgradnja autoputa. Istraženo je područje od oko 1400 metara kvadratnih, u kojem su otkrivene ruševine i baze sedam objekata, od kojih je šest stanova, a jedno je bilo gore spomenuto svetište.

Od 2008. započeo je projekt rekonstrukcije neolitskog sela na temelju arheoloških ostataka, uključujući glinene žrtvene oltare i istraživanje više faza neolitskog naselja pronađenih u sloju tla od tri stope.

Tumba Madzari danas

Danas ne samo da možete posjetiti arheološke ostatke u Tumba Madzari, već se i vratiti u neolitsko doba kroz muzej na otvorenom "Neolitsko selo" na tom mjestu. Muzej na otvorenom otvoren je ujutro od srijede do nedjelje, a vikendom je otvoren i popodne.

Nalazi i rekonstrukcije lokaliteta svjedoče o izuzetnom materijalnom i duhovnom životu, visokim umjetničkim i estetskim dostignućima neolitske Makedonije.

Kako doći do Tumba Madzari

Tumba Madzari nalazi se 2 km sjeverno od glavnog grada Makedonije, Skoplja. Da biste stigli javnim prijevozom, uhvatite autobus 43 ili 65b za Nas. Čento Pazar, prije pješačenja 10 minuta do Tumba Madzari. Ako vozite, Tumba Madzari se nalazi s lijeve strane autoputa Skoplje-Kumanovo-Veles, pored fudbalskog igrališta.


Skopje | istorija i kultura

"Skoplje i okolina imaju bogat istorijski i kulturni život. Naseljeno je još od praistorijskog perioda. Cijela dolina Skoplja je naseljena od najmanje 3.500 godina prije nove ere."

Skoplje u antici

Ostaci neolitskih naselja pronađeni su unutar stare tvrđave Kale koja gleda na moderni centar grada, kao i u Tumba Madzari (kip Majke Božice) i Govrlevu (kip Adama iz Govrleva ili Adama iz Makedonije, što je više arheološko nalazište starije od 6.000 godina).

Skoplje je prvi put spomenuo grčki geograf Klaudije Ptolomej, pod starim imenom Skupi u 3. stoljeću prije nove ere. Nalazilo se na ušću rijeka Lepenec u Vardar. Prema naučnicima, u stara vremena Skupi su zauzimali Tribale, a kasnije su ih kontrolirali Dardanci, koji su bili ilirsko pleme. 148. godine prije nove ere, Rimljani su došli na Balkan, osvojili Skupi i ovdje naselili rimsku vojsku. Scupi je gotovo potpuno uništen u potresu 518. godine nove ere, prvom od tri katastrofalna potresa koji su sravnili ovaj grad. U svojoj kronici Comes Marcelinius je opisao ovu tragediju:

". Za samo trenutak uništena su 24 grada. Scupi, glavni grad Dardanije, potpuno je izravnan kao da su ga opljačkali najstrašniji osvajači. Pojavila se pukotina dugačka 30 milja i široka 12 stopa, koja izvire iz vrelog potoka."

Rani srednji vijek (Vizantinci i Sloveni) u Skoplju

Tokom vizantijskog cara Justinijana 1., skopska dolina dobila je novo gradsko središte pod imenom Justinijana Prima, po svom osnivaču caru Justinijanu, čija je porodica bila iz sela Taor (u okolini Skoplja). Tokom Justinijana 1., Slaveni su počeli da napadaju ove oblasti. Pleme Beregeziti (poznato i kao Berziti) kasnije je priznato kao vladari u skopskoj oblasti.

U razdoblju srednjovjekovne makedonske države koju je vodio Samoil (976-1018), Skoplje je zadržalo svoj ugled iako nije bilo ni glavni ni administrativni centar. Tokom vladavine Samoila, Skopljem je komandovao Rimljanin koji se vratio iz Carigrada. Kasnije 1004. godine, tokom bitke između Samoilovih vojnika i Vizantinca, izdao je grad bizantskom caru Vasiliju 2.

Godine 1040. došlo je do pobune Petra Deljana, nećaka cara Samoila, koji se vrlo hrabro borio za Skoplje i čak je uspio vratiti grad, ali nakratko. Sljedeća pobuna bila je 1072., koju je predvodio Georgi Vojteh. Međutim, njegov uspjeh trajao je samo kratko. 1081. Skoplje je dobilo novog gospodara. Normani, predvođeni Robertom Guiscardom, stigli su preko Drača (grad u Albaniji) i napali i opljačkali Skoplje.

1093. godine, plemenski poglavar Srba, Vukan, na kratko je prekinuo dominaciju Normana, a zatim je normanski vojvoda Boemund Tarenian ponovo potčinio cijelu Pološku dolinu, uključujući i Skoplje. Na ulicama ovog grada slijedili su ga mnogi osvajači. Prvi od njih bio je bugarski car Kaloyan (1204). Tri godine kasnije gospodar Proseka, Dobromir Strez, stigao je u Skoplje i ostao do 1215. Nakon njega, opet Bugari, Vizantinci, Srbi. Sudbina Skoplja bila je slična sudbini Makedonije: stalno mijenjati gospodare.

Srednji vijek i Osmanlije u Skoplju

Skoplje je ponovo u svojoj bogatoj istoriji postalo glavni grad, ovoga puta moćne srpske države Dušana Stefana. Dušan je krunisan za cara u Skoplju 1346. Još jedan važan događaj zbio se 1349. godine: proglašen je Dušanov zakonski zakon.

19. januara 1392. Skoplje je palo pod Turke i vrlo brzo je postalo Uskub. Do 1453. godine Skoplje je bilo prijestolje turskih sultana, a kasnije se razvilo u značajno zanatlijsko i trgovačko središte. Podaci pokazuju da je već 1469. godine imao tržnicu s mnogo trgovina i kamp-serajem koje su posjećivali mnogi trgovci i drugi putnici. Skoplje je pogodila nova katastrofa 1555. Još jedan potres uništio je mnoge kuće. Neki istoričari kažu da je u periodu između 15. i 17. vijeka Skoplje bilo jedan od najbogatijih gradova na Balkanu i opisuju ga kao veliki grad.

Nakon što je pobuna Karposa potisnuta i vođa ubijen u Skoplju, austrijski general Picolomini zarobljen je 25. oktobra 1689. godine, a kasnije je odlučio da spali Skoplje zbog epidemije kolere. Sve do polovine 19. stoljeća, Skoplje se nije moglo oporaviti.

Novo poglavlje u istoriji Skoplja bila je izgradnja željeznice Solun-Skoplje 1873. godine, na drugoj obali rijeke (tada u perifernom dijelu). Skoplje je tada postalo moderan željeznički grad, potvrđujući njegov značaj kao saobraćajnog centra.

Skoplje za vrijeme balkanskog i svjetskog rata i poslije njega

Posle Drugog balkanskog rata, 12. oktobra 1912, Turci su proterani iz grada, ali je srpska vojska ostala. Tokom Prvog svjetskog rata (1914-1918), Skoplje su okupirale bugarska, njemačka i austrijska vojska. Teror i zločini povećali su se u nasilju. U periodu između svjetskih ratova, Skoplje se proširilo na drugu obalu rijeke Vardar. Područje od Kamenog mosta do Željezničke stanice postalo je urbano.

Grad je postao sjedište većeg okruga na jugu Jugoslavije, Vardarske banovine, (Vardarska Makedonija, dijelovi Kosova i Metohije i jugoistočna Srbija). Tokom Drugog svjetskog rata (1941-1945), Skoplje je postalo jedan od prvih gradova-žrtava, bombardovali su ga fašistički avioni 6. aprila 1941. godine, a sutradan ga je zauzela bugarska vojska. Oni su širili teror nad Makedoncima, prisiljavajući ih da koriste bugarska imena, a govor makedonskog bio je strogo zabranjen. Oko 7.200 Jevreja deportovano je iz Skoplja i Makedonije 11. marta 1943. Dan za pamćenje bio je 13. novembar 1944, oslobođenje Skoplja. Odmah nakon oslobođenja, u Skoplju je održano Drugo zasjedanje Antifašističke skupštine nacionalnog oslobođenja Makedonije (ASNOM). Na ovoj sjednici u Skoplju postavljeni su široki principi Makedonske Republike u okviru jugoslavenskog federalnog sistema.


Neolitsko naselje Tumba Madzari

Povoljni prirodni uslovi tokom neolita, prije svega, rijeke (Vardar, Treska, Lepenec, Serava i Markova Reka), jezera (Aračinovo i Katlanovo jezero), močvare, brda i planinska područja (Vodno i Skopska Crna Gora) učinili su to moguće je stvoriti veći broj naselja u Skopskoj dolini kao dio Gornje Vardarske regije u Makedoniji.

Skoplje je jedno od rijetkih gradskih središta u svijetu koje se može pohvaliti dubokom praistorijom i arheološkim ostacima starim 8000 godina. Arheološko nalazište Tumba Madžari nalazi se u naselju “Metodija Andonov - Čento” u ulici “Madžari” u općini Gazi Baba. Pokriva površinu od 22,685 m² (2,2685 ha).

Arheološko nalazište danas je teško uočljivo, budući da većinu njegove površine zauzimaju kuće izgrađene krajem šezdesetih i sedamdesetih godina 20. stoljeća. Ranije je humka (tumba) u Madžari dominirala okolnim ravnim poljem.

Artefakti sa ovog lokaliteta su jedan od stubova arheološkog blaga u Arheološkom muzeju Makedonije, koji se nalazi u centralnom gradskom području Skoplja.

ISTRAŽIVAČKI PODACI TUMBE MADŽARI

Naselje je u literaturi poznato od 1961/2, kada su vršena arheološka istraživanja za izgradnju novog autoputa. Prva arheološka istraživanja lokaliteta izvršio je davne 1978. godine Muzej Makedonije, koji je potvrdio postojanje neolitskog naselja u okviru Kulturne grupe Anzabegovo-Vršnik. Voislav Sanev, arheolog iz Muzeja Makedonije - Skoplje, bio je voditelj prvih i najopsežnijih iskopavanja provedenih od 1978. do 2000. godine.

Arheološka istraživanja 2002. godine nastavljaju se kao dio međunarodnog projekta između CNRS -a iz Pariza, Francuska, pod vodstvom dr. Catherine Commenge, Muzeja Makedonije pod vodstvom dr. Dragiše Zdravkovskog i u suradnji s Institutom za povijest umjetnosti i arheologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu- Skoplje. Od 2003. do 2005. francuski tim radio je nezavisno. U okviru međunarodnog projekta, uz arheološka iskopavanja, napravljene su i petrografske, geološke, paleobotaničke, arheološke analize, kao i vremensko određivanje lokaliteta.

Muzej Makedonije 2004. godine nastavio je iskopavanja pod vodstvom dr. Dragiše Zdravkovskog. Od 2008. do 2013. nastavljena su arheološka istraživanja pod vodstvom mr Elene Stojanove-Kanzurove.

KRONOLOŠKI I KULTURNI LIK TUMBE MADŽARI

Tumba Madžari jedno je od najduže istraživanih arheoloških nalazišta iz srednjeg neolita u Makedoniji i hronološki je povezano sa VI milenijumom prije nove ere.

Najstariji kulturni sloj Tumbe Madžari kronološki odgovara fazi Anzabegovo-Vršnik I, odnosno s kraja mlađeg neolita. Drugi i treći kulturni sloj odgovaraju fazi Anzabegovo-Vršnik II i III, koji su sinhronizovani sa srednjim neolitom.

Većina arheološkog materijala je iz sloja srednjeneolitske faze, odnosno faze Anzabegovo-Vršnik II i III. U tom periodu naselje je doživjelo najveći ekonomski i kulturni razvoj. Kraj života u naselju je u završnoj fazi Anzabegovo-Vršnik III, početkom kasnog neolita, zabilježen malim brojem artefakata. Kasno neolitski sloj zasad nije otkriven. To bi moglo ukazivati ​​na to da je naselje razoreno u 20. stoljeću ili napušteno u prapovijesti.

ARHITEKTURA TUMBE MADŽARI

Tumba Madžari jedno je od rijetkih neolitskih nalazišta u Makedoniji koje pruža detaljniju sliku arhitekture, njene unutrašnje i vanjske organizacije, kao i inventara domaćinstava.

Do sada je utvrđeno devet zatvorenih jedinica - kuća, koje pripadaju III i II kulturnom horizontu, kao i nekoliko djelomično istraženih kuća, što je dalo detaljniju sliku arhitekture. Osnovna arhitektura u Tumbi Madžari ima stambeni karakter, ali je potvrđen i njen sakralni i komercijalni karakter. Kuće su izgrađene u duhu tradicije poljoprivrednih zajednica, odnosno korištenjem građevinskog materijala od drveta, gline, zemlje, trske i slame. Osnova kuća je obično pravokutna i kvadratna, s izuzetkom dvije kuće, čija osnova podsjeća na ćirilično slovo “G ”. Dimenzije kuća su od 4,50 x 6 m do 9 x 9 m.

Keramički oltari-modeli, sa kućom sa krovom "A", najbliži su slici krovnog izgleda neolitskih kuća.

Tokom arheoloških iskopavanja u Tumbi Madžari svetište javnog karaktera do sada nije pronađeno, što ne znači da nije ni postojalo. Arheološki nalazi, poput skulpturalnih zoomorfnih predstava i velike antropomorfne glave s kultnim obilježjima, ukazuju na mogućnost postojanja takvog svetišta. Veliki broj keramičkih antropomorfnih i zoomorfnih oltara, odnosno drugih kultnih predmeta, mnogo više ukazuje na postojanje određenog svetog prostora u svakom domaćinstvu.

KERAMIČKA PROIZVODNJA U TUMBI MADŽARI

Tumba Madžari nesumnjivo se može uvrstiti u rijetke neolitske centre Makedonije u kojima je nastala i proizvedena luksuzna keramika, prepoznatljiva po gornjovardskom kraju i većem području.

Iskopavanja su otkrila keramičke posude različitih oblika, dimenzija i kvalitete obrade. Njihova je površina često ispunjena ukrasima izvedenim tehnikama graviranja i utiskivanja. Po svom obliku to su obično lonci, pitoi velikih dimenzija, široko otvoreni tanjiri, zdjele, šolje i druge vrste posuđa, kao dio kućnog inventara za pripremu hrane, njeno skladištenje i transport.

Posebne keramičke posude, poznate kao "askoi", imaju specifične estetske oblike koji su karakteristični keramički proizvod u srednjem neolitu za ovo arheološko nalazište.

Tumba Madžari je prepoznatljiva, posebno po elegantnim zvonastim peharima i amforama sa specifičnim, „tikvicastim“ oblicima, izrađenim od pročišćene gline i pečenim na visokoj temperaturi. Posebna ikonografija na površini amfore je ona s organiziranim poljima ispunjenim šrafiranim oblicima i listovima#8211, koji je u arheološkoj znanosti poznatiji kao "biljno-cvjetni" stil kulturne grupe Anzabegovo-Vršnik.

Ideju o duhovnoj i materijalnoj kulturi neolitskog stanovništva u Tumba Madžari nadopunjuju neobično zanimljivi keramički nalazi s antropomorfnim i zoomorfnim prikazima, takozvani "T-amajlije" ili "bukranije", predmeti koji nalikuju stolovima raspoređenim na četiri ili tri nogama i drugim keramičkim nalazima.

KULT "VELIKE MAJKE" (MAGNA MATER)

Društveni odnosi u neolitskim zajednicama, posebno unutar porodica, oblikovani su interesima opstanka i prosperiteta zajednice, dodjeljujući ženi poseban društveni status. Bila je snažna inspiracija neolitskom vajaru koji je želio ovjekovječiti njen duh, posebno tijelo, koristeći prirodne materijale (glina, kamen, životinjske kosti) kako bi izrazio i naglasio osnovne fizičke osobine i rodne elemente. Uloga žene kao majke bila je povezana s kultom plodnosti, odnosno takozvanim kultom božice “Velike majke” (Magna Mater), o čemu svjedoče keramički prikazi na žrtvenim oltarima obje kulturne grupe na teritoriju Makedonija. Predstava žene bila je dominantna u umjetničkom repertoaru ove vrste žrtvenog oltara kulturne grupe Anzabegovo-Vršnik. S druge strane, prikaz kuće, koja je bila simbol porodice kao temelj društvenog i ekonomskog života, bila je dominantna u kulturnoj grupi Velušina-Porodin. Ikonografija ovog kulta, sa simbiozom ženskog tijela i kuće, bila je jedinstvena po svom izvornom umjetničkom izrazu koji razlikuje makedonski neolit ​​od drugih neolitskih kultura.

Čuvena keramička skulptura Velike Majke, koja je prvi put otkrivena u cjelini među neolitskim naseljima u Makedoniji, ono je što Tumbu Madzari čini jedinstveno prepoznatljivom u tradiciji Velike Majke. To je specifična arheološka oznaka lokaliteta. Ovaj impresivan oblik oltara s kultnom namjerom otkriven je tokom iskopavanja prve kuće u Tumba Madzari 1981. Slična cijela keramička skulptura otkrivena je i u kući 5 daleke 1987. Veći ili manji ulomci takvog oltara pronađeni su u ostale kuće u Tumba Madzari. Prema prvom istraživaču Tumbe Madzari, a kasnije su to potvrdili i drugi istraživači, dojam je da je posjedovanje ovih oltara bila želja i obaveza svake porodice. Oltar je vjerovatno naručen tokom izgradnje kuće. Njihov ulazak u novu zgradu mogao bi se protumačiti kao njeno “osvećenje ”.

ANTROPOMORFNE SKULPTURE

Antropomorfne skulpture su brojne u neolitskom naselju Tumba Madzari. Broj iskopanih ženskih figurica mnogo je veći u odnosu na muške. Obično su izrađeni od gline, ali postoje i primjeri od kamena ili životinjske kosti. To ne isključuje mogućnost da su neki od njih možda napravljeni od drveta. U modeliranju ljudskog tijela, neolitski majstor pokazao je veliku vještinu i naglasio fizičke osobine plodnosti.

ZANIMANJE U TUMBI MADŽARI

Životinje su oduvijek bile dio života ljudi#8217. Gledajući unatrag, ljudi su lovili životinje, pripitomljavali ih, koristili kao izvor hrane, sirovina i radne snage ili su odgajani kao kućni ljubimci. Neke od životinja bile su poštovane kao božanstva ili kao simboli njihovih zajednica u plodnim kultovima, materijalizirane slikanim i skulpturalnim oblicima.

Rezultati analiziranog arheološkog materijala iz Tumbe Madžari ne oslanjaju se na tendenciju srednjoneolitskih nalazišta u Makedoniji: u odnosu na strukturu stočarstva i zastupljenost lova kao važnog izvora hrane i sirovina. Lov na životinje i dalje je prisutan, ali u manjem omjeru u odnosu na prisutnost već uzgojenih životinja. Najčešće se love životinje aurohe (divlja goveda), jeleni i divlje svinje, a rijetko srna, zec, vuk … U arheološkom materijalu Tumbe Madžari zabilježeni su pojedinačni primjerci ptica, riba i školjki. Što se tiče same strukture stočarstva, ovce i koze ostaju dominantne životinje, a slijede ih goveda, svinje i psi.

ARHEOBOTANIJA U TUMBI MADŽARI

Znanje dobijeno iz skromnog arheobotaničkog sjemena i plodova analiziranih iz Tumbe Madžari uporedivo je s nalazima drugih neolitskih naselja. Postoji više podataka o emeru (Triticum dicoccum). Otkrivena su i zrna ječma (Hordeum vulgare var nudum), grašak (Pisum sativum), ostaci oraha, razni korovski pijesak i neko sjeme lathirusa. Vrijedno pažnje je „keš“ sjemenki mahunarki (Vicia sp.) Ili „graorica“ (narodni izraz), pronađen u dječjoj sahrani ispred neolitske kuće u Tumbi Madžari. Sjemenke vicie imaju veliki ekonomski značaj, uglavnom kao stočna hrana za stoku, ali ih ljudi mogu koristiti i u medicinske svrhe.


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Tumba Madžari

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Tumba (Makedonski: Tumba Madžari) je neolitsko naselje smješteno u sjeveroistočnom dijelu Skoplja u Sjevernoj Makedoniji i najznačajnije je neolitsko naselje u skopskoj dolini. Otkriven je 1961./2. Tokom arheoloških probnih iskopavanja vezanih za izgradnju autoceste.

Prva arheološka iskopavanja izveo je 1978. godine Muzej Makedonije, pod vodstvom Vojislava Saneva. Stratigrafija naselja ima kulturni sloj koji ukazuje na to da se život neprekidno odvijao u razdoblju između 6000. i 4300. godine prije nove ere. Ώ ]

Zemljište se koristilo uglavnom za poljoprivredu, čuvajući ostatke višestranog naselja. Dokazi o više faza naseljavanja nalaze se unutar sloja od tri stope koji prikazuje tri faze života u zajednici i da je naselje bilo dio kulturne grupe Anzabegovo-Vršnik. Jedna od prvih pronađenih građevina bila je kuća za koju se vjerovalo da je svetište i koja pokazuje dokaze o vjeri. ΐ ]

Najreprezentativniji nalaz lokaliteta je otkriće predindoevropskih skulptura Velike Majke, što ukazuje na postojanje kulta Velike Boginje Majke. Ovi nalazi su izvanredan dokaz materijalnog i duhovnog života i visokih umjetničkih i estetskih dostignuća neolitskog čovjeka iz Makedonije. Α ] ΐ ]


Velika boginja majka u Makedoniji

Sally Goodsir, pomoćnica kustosa dekorativne umjetnosti, pozira sa skulpturom od terakote, "Velika majka", iz Makedonije, koja čini jedan od eksponata na temu Kraljevski darovi, koji će biti prikazan od 22. jula na Ljetnom otvaranju državnih prostorija u Buckinghamska palača, London, Britanija, 3. aprila 2017. REUTERS/Toby Melville

Velika majka, ili Magna Mater, jedan je od najznačajnijih i reprezentativnih artefakata pronađenih u Makedoniji. Do sada je pronađeno čak 38 različitih figurica u svim regijama zemlje, a najveći broj otkriven je u Pelagoniji.

Njegovi najstariji primjeri datiraju još od prije 8000 godina, ili iz ranog kamenog doba,#8211, perioda u ljudskoj civilizaciji kada su ženu obožavali zbog njene božanske uloge u životu.

Prema drevnim vjerovanjima, na ženu se gledalo kao na istu zemlju. Ovo je bilo plemenito razmatranje jer su i zemlja i žena blagoslovljeni plodnošću i#8211 pružili su im sigurnost, hranu i život.

Nije slučajno što je Makedonija bila jedno od najboljih zemalja za razvoj doseljenog života i poljoprivrede što je omogućilo procvat kulta Velike Majke.

Zahvaljujući svojim jezerima, tri velike rijeke Vardar, Erigon (Crna Reka) i Struma i njihovim brojnim i moćnim pritokama, Makedonija je postala privlačna za prve poljoprivrednike koji su se naselili u njihovoj blizini i uz njihove obale.

Dva najpoznatija prikaza figurica Velike Boginje Majke nalaze se u plodnoj skopskoj dolini, u regijama Crna Reka, Ohridsko jezero, Vardar itd.

Velika majka Tumba-Madzari Ljubaznošću slike: Haemus Macedonia – centar za promociju kulture

Iako su mnogi prikazi majčinske figure pronađeni u Europi i Anadoliji, oni pronađeni u Makedoniji jedinstveni su jer je majčinska figura oblikovana na vrhu kocke koja predstavlja dom.

Jedna od figura Velike majke otkrivena je na lokaciji Tumba Madzari u Skoplju, a datira iz 6 milenijuma prije današnjeg doba. Druga izuzetna figurica pronađena je u Anzabegovu-Vršniku, takođe blizu Skoplja.

U pravilu, Magna Mater figurice otkrivaju se unutar oboda kuće gdje su nekada zauzimale zapaženu lokaciju i obično su bile izložene podignute na postolju.

Kockasti element ispod figurice žene ima nekoliko tumačenja. Što je najvažnije, predstavlja dom. Šuplje mjesto unutar kocke korišteno je za paljenje tamjana, suhog bilja i drugih darova koji su simbolizirali toplinu doma i majčinski lik.

Treće, vatra je također predstavljala život, pa se takvi ljudi smatraju povezivanjem paljenja vatre s rastom djeteta u maternici ili majčinoj utrobi. I na kraju, ljudi u kamenom dobu prinosili su žito bogovima, pa se žito nudilo i njoj.

Ova izvedba makedonske božice Majke prikazuje trudnički trbuh i ruke čvrsto položene na “kućanstvo ”.

Stvaranje figurica Velike božice Majke zahtijevalo je umjetničku i tehničku vještinu.

Iako figurice ne pokazuju visoko razvijenu estetiku, one u dovoljnoj mjeri shvaćaju bitne atribute žene, poput grudi, kose i tijela. Figurica iz Tumba-Madzarija ima pletenice na stražnjoj strani glave.

Pri izradi konačnog proizvoda, glinu je trebalo prediti, presati i uliti odgovarajuću količinu vode. Nakon toga je oblikovan u željeni model.

Da bi se dobilo trajno dobro, glinu je trebalo ispeći. Da bi ovo funkcioniralo, majstori i zanatlije morali su stvoriti temperature između 900 i 1000 stepeni Celzijusa.

Još jedan prikaz ženske figure iz Makedonije

Ovo je znatna količina topline do koje nije lako doći. Ljudi su tada morali koristiti posebne vrste pećnica sa određenom vrstom drva koja mogu održavati takvu temperaturu, ali su koristili i mijeh za dodavanje zraka i zapaljivanje glave u većem stupnju.

Zahvaljujući izuzetnoj vještini ljudi koji su živjeli u Makedoniji tokom kamenog doba, kao i zahvaljujući uslovima u tlu na arheološkim lokacijama, danas imamo neke od najboljih primjeraka figurice Velike Boginje Majke na svijetu.

Obje figurine koje smo spomenuli u tekstu izložene su u Arheološkom muzeju Makedonije u Skoplju, a njihove kopije najbolje se prodaju u suvenirnicama širom zemlje.

Ženska figurica prikazuje stilske bakropise.


Tumba Madzari i arheološko nalazište#8211 u Skoplju

Tumba Madzari (Tumba Madžari) nalazi se u naselju Cento (Čento) i najvažnije je neolitsko nalazište u skopskoj dolini, otkriveno 1961. godine.

Prva arheološka iskopavanja izveo je 1978. godine Muzej Makedonije. Rezultati su pokazali da neolitsko naselje ima tri životne faze.

  • Utorak – Petak od 8:00 do 14:00 popodne
  • Subota i#8211 Nedelja od 10:30 do 17:30 sati
  • Ponedeljkom i državnim praznicima ne radi se
  • Muzej Makedonije
  • Street. Kurciska bb, 1000 Skoplje, Republika Makedonija
  • E-mail: [email protected]

Ekonomski i kulturni procvat Tumbe Madzari bio je u periodu 5800. i#8211. 5200. godine prije nove ere. U istraživanju iz 1981. godine otkrivena je prva kuća, određena kao svetište, a do sada je otkriveno sedam.

Prva otkrivena kuća sagrađena je tradicionalnom tehnikom zbijenih gomila u zemlju, često obrubljenih kamenjem/mlinovima.

Kućno ljepilo pokazuje da su zidovi izgrađeni od velikih rascijepljenih greda. Zidovi su izvana ukrašeni povlačenjem prstiju u obliku spirala koje završavaju kao primitivni “voluti ”.

Površina kuće je 8 x 8 m, pravilnog pravokutnog oblika. Krov s dva nagiba, set od slame od drvene konstrukcije koji nosi vanjske debele stupove, postavljen sprijeda i straga.

Unutrašnjost kuće odvojena je tankim nepravilnim parapetom. Odvaja dvije peći podignute pored nje.

Prvi put u Makedoniji otkrivene su dvije velike i jedna mala, oslikane amfore, koje su prema formi, ukrašene oslikanim stilizovanim biljnim ornamentima, nađene na jednom mjestu, izrađene rukom velikog majstora.

Ono po čemu je Tumba Madzari dobro poznat, prvi je put otkrivena terakotna predstava Velike Majke (Golemata Majka).

Sa impresivnim dimenzijama visine 0,39 m, klasičan stav smirenosti i bdijenja nad kaminom i mirom čini ovu ekskluzivnu terakotu. U kasnijim istraživanjima pronađeni su drugi ulomci cilindara i kuća različitih veličina i frizura. Uopšteno govoreći, ako uzmemo u obzir kosu, možemo govoriti o visokom nivou mode neolitske žene.

Posebno je zanimljiva upečatljiva isklesana muška glava u prirodnoj veličini. Kao slučajni nalazi s nalazišta je keramički prikaz glave ovna (bika) koji datira iz ranog neolita.

Analiza kostiju životinja i ptica iz Madzara ukazuje da se neolitski čovjek, što se tiče pružanja mesa, apsolutno oslanjao na svoja stada, a vrlo malo na lov i ribolov.


Skoplje - Neolitsko selo i Muzej na otvorenom & quot; Tumba Madzari & quot

Tumba Madzari je arheološko nalazište i neolitsko naselje, smješteno u sjeveroistočnom dijelu Skoplja. Otkriveno je 1961. godine, ali su prva arheološka istraživanja provedena 1978. Stratigrafija naselja ima kulturni sloj koji ukazuje na to da se život neprekidno odvijao u razdoblju između 6.000. i 4300. godine prije nove ere. Najreprezentativniji nalaz lokaliteta je otkriće predindoevropskih skulptura Velike Majke, što ukazuje na postojanje kulta Velike Boginje Majke. Ovi nalazi su izvanredan dokaz materijalnog i duhovnog života i visokih umjetničkih i estetskih dostignuća neolitskog čovjeka iz Makedonije.

Upoznajte Zorana

Zoran

Rođen u Skoplju u prošlom veku, Zoran je licencirani lokalni vodič i bivši nastavnik srednje škole iz Skoplja, sa dugogodišnjim iskustvom u vođenju. Prije pet godina osnovao je besplatne pješačke ture po Skoplju kako bi svojim posjetiteljima pružio lokalnu perspektivu grada. Svim srcem voli svoj rodni grad, što se vidi kroz strast sa kojom vodi ture. Zbog doprinosa u 2018. i 2019. godini, Vlada Republike Makedonije dodijelila mu je nagradu & quotNajbolji turistički vodič u Makedoniji & quot. Njegovi obilasci takođe ga visoko preporučuju gosti. Njihove recenzije u vrlo kratkom vremenskom periodu učinile su njegove besplatne pješačke ture po Skoplju najbolje rangiranim izletom u Skoplju na TripAdvisoru. Pridružite mu se i saznajte više o ovom skrivenom dragulju Evrope na zabavan i zanimljiv način.

Šta očekivati

Spremite se za nešto posebno. Putujemo u Skoplje bez pasoša, avionske karte i prtljaga. A ipak ćete doživjeti sve znamenitosti, zvukove i priče samo sa svojim prijenosnim računalom, omiljenom užinom i nevjerojatnim kreatorom sadržaja.

The tour will last about 45 mins and will be live-streamed by your content creator directly from Skopje . Forget about slideshows or pre-recorded videos, this is a live broadcast and anything can happen!

While on the tour you’ll be able to see a full screen video of your content creator and their surroundings, interact with them and other travellers through the live chat, see where you are in the world on a map and show your appreciation with a tip.

Why are they tip-supported?

We are running these tours on a tip-supported basis to make them as accessible as possible. They are free to join, but you have the option to leave a tip during the tour.

The majority of your tip goes directly to support the channel, while the rest helps Heygo continue to build a place that brings the world closer together.

See a tour in action

How to join

Reserve your spot by selecting a time to book. Once done, you’ll be able to see your reservations on your Trips page and we’ll send you an email confirmation with a link to join the tour.

For the best viewing experience, please join on a computer using Google Chrome.


Macedonia and It’s Historical Recognition in the Year 2001

This website, dedicated to cultural tourism in Macedonia, was given its name “Come to Macedonia and Your Heart Will Remain Here” in the spring of 1999. While it existed this site had its own description written in 2001 which we will try to pass as credible:

Two years ago , when we wrote our application to the Open Competition of EU Phare Cultural Development Program
, we wanted this title to be a simple and poetical expression of the feeling that the visitors capture here, in Macedonia.

Macedonia, our wonderful and serene country

This beautiful country has millennium-long traditions and with an immeasurable cultural treasures (both material and spiritual) that you find at every step of your way, that have persisted through all the predicaments imposed by nature or the human kind. Treasure that is a part of our souls, of our collective memory, of our perception of ourselves.

Furthermore, the cultural treasure that we proudly wanted to present to the world, to invite the tourists to come and share that treasure with us – to visit the monuments. But also the feel the scent, the taste, the music and the silence of the country Macedonia. At 14 February 2000 our team took the first photographs and wrote the first lines of text. Fifteen months of hard work and excitement with its results followed.

But, at the moment when we publish this site (June 1, 2001), the title “Come to Macedonia and Your Heart Will Remain Here” sounds very different. Cynical. Even sinister. It is clear that this year the Macedonian hospitality will not welcome the guests that it longed for.

Macedonia is a hot topic for the world

But regarding something very different from the subject of this web-site. Tragically, many young people gave their hearts (their lives) for Macedonians and their families and the entire state is left in mourning.

We have been thinking whether we should change the title. But finally we decided to keep it, in hope that we will soon live in peace again and that Macedonia will not be at front pages any more. But that it will move to the rear pages where beautiful and noble topics are elaborated. That the wounds that cannot and should not be forgotten will heal.

Moreover, the word “Macedonia” will not remind of blood and terrorism of a fictitious denial of rights behind which completely different agenda is hiding. That the word “Macedonia” will bring images of the sun, of light, wine, lakes, rivers, mountains, icons, frescoes, of churches and mosques that exist together of people who pray at either churches or mosques. But who live their lives together, as friends.

Riječ “Macedonia”

This word will awaken memories of the wonderful time spent in our country, and the desire to return to the country of beauty and treasure that has enchanted hearts of the people. We hope that this title “Come to Macedonia and Your Heart Will Remain Here” will soon sound as pure as it sounded in the year 1999.

We dedicate the website “Come to Macedonia and Your Heart Will Remain Here” to all the people that, in the first year of the third millennium, gave their lives for Macedonia, who were killed in the ridiculous attacks of the forces bereft of reason. Also, we dedicate it to all people who do not surrender to this absurdity. But who still make all their noble efforts for the benefit of peace, friendship, democracy, love, humanity, culture.

To all Macedonian children and all Macedonian parents of all religions as well as nationalities who fight to preserve Macedonia and who fight with their guns or with their creations. To this country, where the words respect and tolerance were more than shallow phrases. The country that has managed, as stale and prosaic as it may sound to remain the oasis of peace on the turbulent Balkans.

Macedonians must survive

Nonetheless, this is because the world has much to learn from it. This website is dedicated to all the people who know Macedonia and who devote their hearts to it.

Read the Macedonian version of this article here.

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Skopje Region

The Skopje region is competitive in SEE with recognizable potential for investments and development in function of raising the standard and quality of life of citizens and utilizing and protecting the natural and cultural heritage evenly in the region. It is rich in natural and cultural-historical facilities: the archaeological site Skupi, the fortress Kale, the aqueduct, the Old Town Bazaar, numerous churches and monasteries, etc. The region successfully develops urban, spa, transit and alternative tourism. Skopje region is located in the northern part of Macedonia and borders with the: Vardar, Polog, Northeast, East and Southwest region.

Location of the Skopje region

According to the location, the Skopje region covers the basin of the Skopje valley and covers a total area of 1812 km2 or 7% of the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. The Skopje valley is limited by mountain ranges, Skopska Crna Gora to the north, Gradishtanska Mountain to the east, the massif Mokra Mountain in the south and the branches of Karadzica, Suva Gora and Zeden to the west. The region is directly in touch with the beautiful cliff valleys of the Vardar River, such as the Derven and the Taor Ravine, the Sishevska Ravine of the Treska River, the Kachanica Ravine of the Lepenac River and the Badar Ravine on the Pchinja River.



Traffic routes in the Skopje region

There are several traffic routes in the Skopje region: one from Belgrade to Thessaloniki (road E-75), the second from the Adriatic Sea to Thessaloniki, the third from Kriva Palanka and Kumanovo and the fourth from Ohrid and Debar to Skopje. The City of Skopje is the central railway node. In terms of air transport, one of the two national airports - "Skopje International Airport" is located in the Skopje region, which is of great importance for the functioning of the region as a commercial and administrative centre of the country. The Skopje region also has a sports A class airport, located in the vicinity of Skopje. One road and one railway crossing with Serbia, as well as a border crossing located at the airport "International Airport Skopje" are found in this region.

Climate in the Skopje region

The Skopje region is characterized by average annual temperature of 12⁰С and average annual quantity of rain of 500 mm. The region is characterized by a continental climate with small penetrations of Mediterranean influences, and in the higher regions a mountainous climate prevails.

Natural resources, flora and fauna in the Skopje region

The Skopje region is confined to the mountain massifs Skopska Crna Gora to the north, the Gradishtanska Mountain in the east, the Mokra Gora massif to the south and the branches of Karadzica, Suva Gora and Zeden to the west. Mountains that are in the vicinity of the city of Skopje and are visited by thousands of visitors are: Skopska Crna Gora (1,653 m), Zeden (1,259 m) Vodno (1.066 m), Kitka (1.589 m), Karadzica (2.217 m) etc.

Vodno is the closest and most visited medium-sized mountain with favourable geographical position to Skopje. The highest peak is Krstovar, 1.066 m high, where the mountain lodge and the Millennium Cross are to be found. There is a cable car to the top of Vodno. The surrounding area of the Skopje region is surrounded by several ravines, as follows: that of the river Vardar - Zedenska or Dervenska and Taorska of the river Treska - Shishevska of the river Lepenec - Kacanica and the of river Pchinja - Badarska ravine.

Matka Canyon

There is also one canyon in the Skopje region, the Matka lake & canyon on the river Treska. On the surrounding mountains and at the edge of the valley there are several caves, of which the most famous are: Dona Duka, Vrelo, Krshtalna and other. The Vrelo Cave consists of two caves (overwater and underwater). The underwater cave Vrelo is currently the deepest underwater cave in Europe, with a depth of 212 meters discovered so far. The overwater cave Vrelo, or the "Nad Vrelo" cave, has a length of 150 meters. Although with modest dimensions, it is one of the richest with cave decorations, stalactites, stalagmites, columns, etc.



Hydrological characteristics of the Skopje region

The Skopje region is also known for its rivers running and flowing into the main Macedonian river Vardar. These are the rivers Treska, Lepenec, Patiska Reka, Kadina Reka and other smaller ones. The river Vardar is the main river and it divides the valley into two parts: east and west. Vardar also flows through the capital of the Republic of Macedonia, Skopje, and it is a length of over 20 km. In the vicinity of the city of Skopje the artificial lakes Matka and Kozjak can be found. Another important hydrographic object is the Rasce spring, from which the city of Skopje with the surrounding settlements is supplied with drinking water. Besides its hydropower potential, Treska and Kadina River with its ambient beauties offer excellent conditions for recreation and development of tourism and hospitality content.

In the Skopje region there is also a bath, that is Katlanovo Bath. In summary, the natural heritage in the region consists of: Vodno, Katlanovsko Blato, Matka Canyon, Jasen Nature Reserve and other smaller facilities. The thermal and thermal-mineral waters in Katlanovo are of particular mineral importance, which provide an opportunity for the development of spa tourism in this area. The diverse geological composition, relief dissection, the presence of water and climatic influences enabled a rich floral world with diverse dandoflora and grassland vegetation. The fauna is represented by a diverse big and small game: bear, wolf, wild goat, wild boar, rabbit, partridge and various other species that are of interest to tourists.

Natural and cultural-historical heritage in the Skopje region

The City of Skopje is the capital of the Republic of Macedonia, a city with a history of several millennia from the Neolithic era, through the antique period and the Middle Ages to the present, over 7,000 years of being a continuous settlement. Skopje and the surroundings of Skopje region have well-known cultural-historical monuments, archaeological sites and memorials..

The region has the following museums, memorials and national cultural institutions: Archaeological Museum, Museum of the Macedonian Struggle, Natural Science Museum and Zoo, Ethnological Museum, Archaeological Museum, Macedonian Ethno Village, Memorial House of Mother Teresa, Museum of the Holocaust, the Museum of the City of Skopje, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Macedonian National Theater, the Macedonian Opera and Ballet, the University Library, the Universal Hall, several universities and a dozen other national institutions..

Tumba Madzari

Tumba Madzari is a prehistoric settlement in Madzari in the Skopje region, from 6,200 to 4,200 BC old - seven houses (dwellings) were explored with movable inventory - vessels, objects, house terracotta altar of the goddess Great Mother - protector of fertility and one sanctuary. Based on the excavations, it has been established that it is a multifaceted settlement with a cultural layer of three meters in which three horizons of living from the Middle Neolithic period are separated. Today, three houses have been reconstructed in this place, which are with a rectangular and square-shaped fundament, built of timber, clay mud, covered with straw and in which authentic fireplaces, ceramic vessels, various objects from the middle Neolith, human and animal dolls were placed.



Skupi

Skupi is an archaeological site, a city of Roman and late antique period. The name denotes a dwelling, houses. It is located 5 km northwest of Skopje in the immediate vicinity of the village of Zlokukani, to the left of the mouth of the Lepenec river, at the foot of Zajcev Rid. This site has been known from the end of the XIX century. The systematic archaeological research began in 1966, which with smaller interruptions, is continuously carried out to date. So far, the walls, the theater, the civil basilica, the Christian basilica, the town's mansion (palace), the city bath, the street - cardo, parts of the eastern and the western necropolis have been fully or partially explored.



Kale and Stone Bridge

The latest archaeological data indicate that the Kale fortress was inhabited since the Neolithic period (before 3000 BC) and in the early Bronze Age. The remains of earthenware, huts and palisades confirm this statement. The fortress is also known for its wall, which dates back to 535 AD, from the time of Justinian I rule. Being situated in a very important strategic location, the fortress was besieged and attacked several times..



The Stone Bridge is a symbol of the city of Skopje. It is located in the very centre of the city, on the river Vardar, and is a connection between the old and the new part of the city. According to new research in 1990, it is assumed that the Stone Bridge was built in the 6th century, during the reign of Emperor Justinian I, and in the fifteenth century it received its today's appearance, during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II. The stone bridge was built of fine-made stone blocks, and its construction lies on massive columns connected by 13 semi-circular arches.

Archaeological site Gradiste, village of Taor

It is Taurusium, the birthplace of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (483-565). It is located on the site "Gradiste" above the village of Taor, in front of the entrance to the Taor Ravine, 20 km from Skopje. On this site, layers of three settlements of different historical periods - Eneolithic, Late Antique and Medieval period were registered. A castel with a triangular base on the walls, towers, one bastion, fortified terraces, plumbing remains, late antique necropolis, part of a marble monument, pillars from the early Christian basilica, various coins and so on, were discovered.



Aqueduct

The Roman aqueduct is located on the outskirts of the Skopje region, along the Skopje-Kachanik road. It was built of brick and stone. It supplied the city with water from the mountain Skopska Crna Gora. From the former 200 archs, 50 have been preserved today. It is assumed that it was built in VI century, in the time of Justinian I, and therefore this aqueduct is also called Justinian's aqueduct.



Churches and monasteries in the Skopje region

St. Pantelejmon Monastery, village of Gorno Nerezi. On the walls of this monastery - an artistic monument, fresco painting has been preserved, which according to its qualities rightfully counts among the top achievements of the Byzantine painting from the period of the XII century, the time of the rule of the famous Komnin dynasty. Accordingly, this monastery has an exceptionally rare fresco painting value (about nine centuries old) to Macedonia, Europe, and also to the world. The monastery was built in 1164 with the assets of the Byzantine prince Alexei, the son of Constantine Angel and Theodora, the youngest daughter of the Byzantine emperor Alexei I Komnen.



The particularity of the building is reflected in the style of the construction, built by unknown talented builders and unknown talented painters of the frescoes, which according to what was painted were the most significant ones of their time. The monastery was built on a monolithic rock, the building was made of stone and brick, in the form of an inscribed cross in a rectangular space and has five domes. Particular attention is drawn to the fresco-paintings of "Mourning of Christ", "Communion of the Apostles", "The Birth of St. Mother of God," "Entry to Jerusalem "," Taking down from the Cross" and so on. During the long history, the monastery survived a fire, earthquake, ruining and robberies, but remained a holly and bright witness of the rich church and cultural life. Today the monastery is accessible and open to visits and stays for many believers and tourists.

St. Nikita Monastery

On the slopes of Skopska Crna Gora, northwest of Skopje, between the villages of Gorenje, Banjani and Cucer, on a hill, the monastery St. Nikita was built. It was built on old foundations in 1307/8. Architecturally, the church was built in the form of an inscribed cross in a rectangular space. It was made of stone and bricks connected with mortar. The fresco painting in the church originates from the time it was built, with the exception of some parts of new fresco paintings.



The church was painted by the painters Mihailo and Evtihij. The same painters are creators of frescoes in the churches St. Clement (Bogorodica Perivlepta) in Ohrid and in the church of St. Gorgi in the village of Staro Nagorichino. The frescoes of the church are divided into three zones. The first zone consists of saints in full size, who were painted en face. The frescoes of the second zone are dedicated to "the miracles of Christ." The third zone illustrates the frescoes depicted through the compositions of "Christ's torments", from which the most important is the fresco "the Secret Dinner/the Last Supper".

Church Introduction of the Holy Mother of God

On the slopes of Skopska Crna Gora, in the village of Kuceviste, there is a church dedicated to Introduction of the Holy Mother of God. In the population it is known under the name St. Spas. The church was built before 1348, and frescoed between 1355 and 1358, by the painter Gregorij. Architecturally, the church basically shows an inscribed cross in a rectangular space, above which a high dome of four pillars rises. On the outer side, the apse is five-sided, decorated with niches and fields, with decorative built-in bricks.



The talented painter made several compositions, of which the most important are: "Washing the Feet", "Mourning of Christ", "Mother of God with Christ" and so on. During the long history, the church has been renovated several times, so today there are several layers of frescoes, where a gallery of characters has been created, occurring at different times. Inside the church there is an iconostasis with many icons made in the XIX century. Among them a special place is dedicated to the icon (door) of Dicho Zograf from the village of Tresonce, created in 1845, and it is one of his earliest works.

In the immediate vicinity of the village of Kuceviste, in the valley of Kuceviska Reka there is a monastery church dedicated to St. Archangel Michael and Gavril. The church has the form of an inscribed cross with a dome. The year of the church's construction has not been established. It was established that the church was frescoed in 1591. Judging by the method of construction and the stylistic features of architecture, the church was probably built at the end of the 14th or early 15th century.

Marko’s Monastery St. Dimitrija

In the vicinity of the village of Susica, in the Skopje region, there are several churches and monasteries from the 14th century: Marko’s monastery, the church of the Holy Mogther of God and the Church of St. Archangel Gavril. Marko's monastery obtained its name since the founders were King Volkashin and his son - King Marko. The monastery church was built in 1345 and frescoed between 1366 and 1371/2. This monastery consists of several buildings arranged as a wreath around the church, the old and the new lodge, the old monastery dining room, bell tower, mill and other auxiliary facilities. The church is in the form of an inscribed cross, and it was built with stone bricks. An asphalt road leads to the monastery, and during the year it is visited by many believers and tourists.



St. Andrej Monastery

In the canyon of the river Treska, to the shores of the artificial lake Matka, the monastery St. Andrej or St. Andrea is located. In the inscription in the church it is mentioned that it was built by Andrea, the second son of King Volkashin, in 1388/89. Inside the church there are several inscriptions, the monk Kalest Kiril has been mentioned, who together with the other "brothers" participated in the construction, was the abbot and founder of the church, and died after the fresco painting was finished.



Also, in another inscription the painters are mentioned: Metropolitan Jovan, painter, and the monk Grigorij, who worked in the monastery St. Preobrazenie in the village of Zrze. The frescoes in the church are represented in three horizontal zones, and the frescoes of the holy warriors are particularly noticeable: St. Gjorgij, Dimitrija, Teodor Tiron and Teodor Stratilat, shown in the first zone in full size. In the second or middle zone, there are several scenes from the "Torments of Christ". In the third, upper zone scenes from the cycle of the Great Holidays: "The Birth of Christ," "The Meeting," "The Baptism of Christ" etc. are illustrated. Today, due to the accessibility and attractiveness of the area, this monastery and the immediate surroundings represent an interesting tourist zone, which is quite visited by believers and tourists from Macedonia and abroad.

Church St. Spas/Saviour

There are many churches in Skopje, but the oldest one is the church of St. Spas. According to historical sources, a number of churches were built in Skopje in the period from the X to the XIV century, but none of them survived to this day. In the church we find remains of frescoes on the southern wall dating back to the seventeenth century. The rebuilding of the church was performed after the city's burning in 1689, and with that of the previous old church. The church got its final appearance at the beginning of the 19th century. The church is half buried, so that it can not dominate, but be in the shadow of the surrounding mosque.



It is famous for its impressive iconostasis (10 metres wide and 6 metres high), a work by the workers of Makarija Frckovski from Galichnik, which worked on it from 1819 to 1824. The iconostasis was made of walnut wood and shows scenes from the Old and the New Testament. In the courtyard of the monastery, next to the church, is the grave of the revolutionary Goce Delchev. During the year, the church is visited by many tourists and believers. There are many churches and monasteries in Skopje and its surroundings. Important churches in the city of Skopje are: St. Dimitrija, Holy Mother of God, St. Gorgija, H. Petka, the cathedral St. Kliment Ohridski/Clement of Ohrid and so on.

The Cathedral St. Kliment Ohridski/Clement of Ohrid

Skopje is one of the most important buildings of the recent history of Skopje. The cathedral was sanctified in 1990. The form of the temple is an architectural construction of a blend of the old with the new styles of Macedonian church architecture. It is an imposing building in a combination of four domes and towers ending in a large ostagonal dome, with a large gold-plated cross at the top. The interior of the church is fresco-painted and has a large iconostasis of four parts, made by Macedonian artists, painters and carvers. In the courtyard of the church there is a fountain which is a gift from the Islamic religious community. Additionally, in the yard of the church there is a monument of its patron, St. Kliment Ohridski, as well as a high bell tower.



Ottoman monuments in the Skopje region

Sultan Murat – Hynkar Mosque

Sultan Murat II in 1436 erected this mosque as its heritage. However, throughout history, the mosque has suffered repeatedly, but has been renewed every time. The second name of the mosque Hyunkar (Tsar’s, Sultan’s) or Saat Mosque/Clock Mosque is due to the clock tower in its yard, built between 1566 and 1572, as the first clock tower in the Ottoman Empire. The clock tower is 40 metres high and has three parts. In the courtyard of the mosque there are two turbes, that of the Beyhan Sultan and the family tomb of Ali Pasha from Dagestan.



Ishak Bey’s (Painted) Mosque or Gazi Isa-Bey’s Mosqu

Built by Isak Bey in 1438, who besides the mosque as a heritage, also built a turbe, medrasa, lodgings and buildings belonging to the profane architecture. Throughout history it has been repeatedly repaired, damaged, and recovered. It obtained the name Aladza, which means colourful, because of the colourful tiles, which are now preserved only on the turbe behind the mosque. Isa Bey’s Mosque, Skopje, this mosque is located in the immediate vicinity of Bit Pazar in Skopje. It was erected in 1475 by Isa-bey, the son of Ishak-Bey, the founder of the Aladza Mosque, as a legacy. There are two domes, and on the entrance to the mosque there is a porch with pillars with five smaller domes.



Mustafa Pasha Mosque

Mustafa Pasha mosque was erected in 1492 by the commander of Skopje, Mustafa Pasha. Mustafa Pasha died in 1519 and was buried in the turbe, which is located beside the northeast wall of the mosque. Today in the courtyard of the mosque is Mustafa Pasha's turbe, the sarcophagus of his daughter Umi, the fountain, several tombstones, as well as the remains of the former imaret and the medresa. The mosque has an imposing dome and a narrowly elevated minaret. In front of the mosque a porch is placed with four marble pillars with three smaller domes. The mosque is built with alternating rows of clay stone and two rows of bricks.

Yahya-Pasha Mosque, Skopje

The mosque was erected in 1504 by Yahya-Pasha in Skopje as his legacy. During its existence, it has been repaired and rebuilt many times. The minaret of the mosque is 50 meters high and is considered the highest among the minarets of other mosques in Skopje. At the top of the minaret there are a crescent and a star, made of gold. Tombstones and a turbe are preserved in the courtyard of the mosque.



Features of the Old Skopje Bazaar

Chifte Amam. The amam is the work of Isa-bey, as a legacy, built in 1531. The amam is divided into two parts, with separate entrances for men and women baths, which is why it was given the name Chifte Amam (double amam).



Daut Pasha amam. In the immediate vicinity of the Stone Bridge, in the old part of Skopje, is one of the most monumental monuments of the Islamic profane architecture - the Daut Pasha amam. In the period from 1489 to 1497, Daut Pasha was a great Vizier of Rumelia and raised the amam with his own funds. The amam for some time was left to a gradual collapse, but after the reconstruction, nowadays there is an Art Gallery in it.



Kurshumli-an. There is no exact date and data for the building of the an. It is situated in the Old Skopje Bazaar. The an obtained its name by the roof of the numerous domes coated with lead (bullet). Kurshumli-an changed its function in the course of its existence: it was first an, then it was converted into a prison, and then into an an again. Today, its premises are used as a lapidarium of the Archaeological Museum.



Additional tourist attractions in the Skopje region

The Millennium Cross in Skopje was built in 2002 in the honour of 2000 years since the emergence of Christianity. The foundation of the millennium cross is supported by 12 small pillars that symbolize the twelve apostles, and four large pillars (10 meters high) that symbolize the four gospels and which, together with the immediate surroundings, form a cross. Above them is a 67-meter high steel construction and a span of 46 meters of the sides. The cross is divided into 33 parts that symbolize the years of Jesus Christ. At night the cross is illuminated with 650 lamps. The Millennium Cross is visible in a 40 km radius.



Macedonian ethno-village

Macedonian Village is a complex with 12 ethno houses from various regions of Macedonia (Berovo, Struga, Tetovo, Gostivar, Bitola, Prilep and so on), which offers accommodation for guests and tourists and includes other accompanying elements (rural yard, watermill, barn, fountain, but also a museum, amphitheatre, souvenir shop, restaurant, etc.).



Other cultural and sports facilities include: National Sport Arena "Philip II Macedonian", Boris Trajkovski Sports Centre, Jane Sandanski Sports Centre, Aqua Park, Hippodrome etc. In Skopje, during the year, a number of manifestations are organized - cultural, music, dramatic, art, literary, sports, entertainment, scientific, and the like. The most important are: "Skopsko Leto (Skopje Summer)", "Skopje Jazz Festival", "May Opera Evenings", "White night", "Baskerfest", "Youth Open Theatre", "Pivoland", "Vinoskop" and many other.


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